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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Vesicles ; Phycomyces ; Calcium ionophore ; Chitin synthetase ; Invertase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Hyphal elongation, chitin synthesis in vivo, and invertase secretion inPhycomyces blakesleeanus were all inhibited almost instantly by the addition of 5–10 μM calcium ionophore A 23187. Protein biosynthesis was inhibited in these conditions by 30–50%. The ionophore did not affect cell respiration for at least 40 min. Effect on chitin biosynthesis was not due to alterations of the chitin synthetase levels or its activity; nor to impairement in GlcNAc metabolism. In drug-treated cells the number of apical vesicles was severely reduced even at very short periods of incubation, and these low numbers remained constant for at least 60 min of incubation with the ionophore. We suggest that the ionophore collapses the cellular calcium gradient and/or interferes with the normal electrical transhyphal current. As a consequence, formation and migration of apical vesicles are inhibited. These results are further evidence of the role of vesicles in fungal tip growth and exhibit the fact that active chitin synthetase is short-lived in vivo demanding its continuous supply by chitosomes to the cell surface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsUstilago maydis ; Zea mays ; Corn smut ; Meiosis ; Cell cycle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The heterobasidiomycetes responsible for plant smuts obligatorily require their hosts for the completion of the sexual cycle. Accordingly, the sexual cycle of these fungi could so far be studied only by infecting host plants. We have now induced Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut, to traverse the whole life cycle by growing mixtures of mating-compatible strains of the fungus on a porous membrane placed on top of embryogenic cell cultures of its host Zea mays. Under these conditions, mating, karyogamy and meiosis take place, and the fungus induces differentiation of the plant cells. These results suggest that embryogenic maize cells produce diffusible compounds needed for completion of the sexual cycle of U. maydis, as the plant does for the pathogen during infection.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: “Slime” variant ; Neurospora ; Chitosomes ; Chitin synthetase ; Secretory vesicles ; Invertase ; Phosphatase ; Membranes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cells from the “slime” variant of Neurospora crassa were broken in isotonic conditions by use of triethanolamine buffer plus EDTA. After removal of large membranous structures by low-speed centrifugation, chitosomes and secretory vesicles were separated by means of gel filtration, precipitation of membranous contaminants with Concanavalin A, and centrifugation in sucrose or glycerol gradients. Polypeptidic composition of fractions enriched in secretory vesicles or chitosomes was found to be distinct. By these criteria we concluded that chitosomes and secretory vesicles represent different populations of microvesicles. Both microvesicular populations appeared free of endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar contaminants as demonstrated by determination of appropriate enzymatic markers.
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