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  • Ceratitis capitata  (9)
  • diabetes  (6)
  • Springer  (15)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
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Publisher
  • Springer  (15)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperosmolar diabetic coma ; erythrocytes ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a study of 10 diabetic patients, each of whom was in a severely decompensated state, notable alteration of blood flow properties was observed in those six patients who were hyperosmolar. In this form of diabetic decompensation, whole blood filtration was distinctly impaired. The additional impairment was shown to be due to an accumulation of solute within the erythrocytes occurring as a consequence of hyper-osmolarity. The alterations in erythrocytes were revealed by Coulter blood count abnormalities and confirmed by osmotic fragility studies. When biochemical improvement was achieved in these patients, rapid resolution of the erythrocyte abnormalities occurred. Microvascular ischaemia due to such erythrocyte alterations may be a possible explanation for the characteristic cerebral disturbances of the hyperosmolar diabetic state. Altered blood flow properties would also promote vascular thrombosis, a common terminal event in the hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome with associated 50 per cent mortality. An improved design of the insulin and fluid replacement therapy for patients in hyperosmolar diabetic coma might be based on the findings of these and further studies.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycaemic index ; leguminous seeds ; low blood glucose rise ; diabetes ; diabetic diet ; fat ; sugars ; protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recently diabetic patients have been encouraged to increase their carbohydrate intake, but exact details of which foods to use are lacking. To determine whether sufficiently large differences existed to justify more specific dietary advice, we compared the glycaemic responses to 50 g carbohydrate portions of different foods, taken as breakfast test meals by groups of five to seven diabetic patients. Two-to threefold differences were seen amongst the 15 foods tested. The glycaemic responses for spaghetti, ‘All-bran’, rice and beans were significantly below those for bread, while ‘Cornflakes’ were above. Factors predicted to influence this were without effect, including: substituting wholemeal for white bread, increasing substantially the simple sugars (using ‘All-bran’ or bananas instead of wholemeal bread) and doubling meal protein by adding cottage cheese to bread. Paired comparisons of the glycaemic response to the five legumes with those of the seven other starchy foods (breads, spaghetti, rice, Cornflakes, oatmeal porridge and potatoes) showed that the mean peak rise in blood glucose concentration and mean area under the glucose curve after beans were 23 and 28% lower, respectively, than the mean for the other foods (p 〈 0.001). Such results suggest a potentially valuable role for dried leguminous seeds in carbohydrate exchanges for individuals with impaired carbohydrate tolerance. These large differences in the blood glucose response to different food cannot at present be predicted directly from tables of chemical composition. Nevertheless, physiological testing may both aid in understanding the factors responsible and help selection of the appropriate carbohydrate foods for the diabetic diet.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Artificial endocrine pancreas ; capillaryunit ; xenogeneic ; pancreatic islets ; transplantation ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An implantable artificial endocrine pancreas consisting of a coiled single acrylic copolymer capillary surrounded by rat islets (1000/kg body weight) was implanted in 10 streptozotocin-alloxan diabetic dogs. About 5 h following implantation plasma glucose decreased from an initial mean value of 350 mg/dl to 150 mg/dl, and then to 100 mg/dl at 12 h. Plasma insulin increased to a mean of 39 mU/l (range 23–83 mU/l) at 5 h in the recipient animals. In addition a much improved plasma glucose disappearance rate (K = 1.9 ±0.3) with slightly delayed insulin responses was seen after intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed in 4 dogs at 7, 8, 10 and 18 h following implantation. These findings suggest that xenogeneic rat islets implanted as an artificial endocrine pancreas can improve glucose metabolism in the diabetic dog.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 20 (1981), S. 583-584 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Coulter mean red cell volume ; diabetes ; blood glucose ; glycosylated haemoglobin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The Coulter mean red cell volume was found to be significantly elevated in a sample of 100 diabetic patients compared with 200 normal subjects (p 〈 0.01). There was no correlation between the mean red cell volume level and the type of diabetes, its method of treatment or degree of control as measured by random blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Aldose reductase inhibitors ; 1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-diones ; 3,5-isoxazolidinediones ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 1,2,4-Triazolidine-3,5-diones and the 3,5-isoxazolidinedione were, observed to be, potent inhibitors of rat lens aldose reductase activity. In vivo in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, selected agents at 20 mg/kg/day, orally for 21 days reduced significantly the sorbitol levels of rbc, lens and sciatic nerves, suggesting that these derivatives may have some usefulness to treat clinical complications of diabetes mellitus.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: pheromone ; Ceratitis capitata ; oviposition deterrent ; laboratory insect quality ; Tephritidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract During ovipositor dragging on the fruit surface following egg laying in hawthorne fruit,Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) females deposit an unidentified pheromone that deters repeated oviposition attempts in that fruit. The pheromone proved water soluble and, when collected and sprayed in aqueous solution onto uninfested fruits in laboratory cages, effectively deterred boring attempts byC. capitata females of wild origin for at least 6 days (termination of test). A laboratory population ofC. capitata cultured on artificial media for more than 200 generations deposited pheromone that proved equally as deterrent to wild fly oviposition as pheromone from wild flies. However, lab fly oviposition was not effectively deterred by the presence of pheromone. The ecological significance of the pheromone is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: host preference ; experience ; learning ; oviposition behavior ; Mediterranean fruit fly ; Ceratitis capitata ; host chemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Groups of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann), were exposed for several days to one of three host fruit species. Oviposition-site acceptance behavior was subsequently assayed on five fruit species. Females accepted most often the fruit to which they were exposed. Females exposed to a small fruit, mock orange, accepted other fruit species less often as the size of the fruit increased; females exposed to a large fruit, sweet orange, accepted other fruit species more often as the size of the fruit increased. This tendency for experience with one host fruit species to alter differentially behavioral responses to alternative host fruit species has been defined as cross-induction. In contrast, females exposed to a medium fruit, kumquat, were not cross-induced: females accepted the medium fruit very often and rejected all other fruit species to approximately the same degree regardless of size. When females were exposed to small, medium, or large fruit and tested on spherical wax fruit models of a variety of sizes, patterns similar to those with real fruit were observed. Whereas naive females generally accepted a given model as frequently as real fruit of a similar size, experienced females generally accepted models much less frequently than real fruit. In a final experiment, females were exposed to different fruits and tested on spherical wax models treated with fruit chemicals. Experienced females generally accepted fruit-treated spheres more often than untreated spheres. In addition, females usually accepted most often models treated with chemicals from the fruit to which they were exposed. Two hypotheses about the mechanism by which experience alters fruit acceptance— termed the “sliding template” and “closing window” hypotheses— are presented. Results of fruit and model acceptance by naive and experienced females support the latter hypothesis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; learning ; foraging ; oviposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des femelles sauvages d'une population essentiellement monophage de C. capitata Wiedemann, provenant de l'île de Hawaï, ont été mises en présence pendant des périodes de 3 jours dans des enceintes dans la nature à des fruits de Murraya paniculata et de Citrus sinensis suspendus à des branches d'arbres empotés. Quand les mouches ont été libérées individuellement sur les arbres empotés portant l'un ou l'autre de ces fruits (ou leur mélange), une plus forte proportion a visité le fruit avec lequel elles étaient familiarisées (et l'ont trouvé plus vite) que le fruit avec lequel elles ne n'étaient pas. De plus, les femelles découvrant des fruits de cette population monophage ne tentèrent de pondre que dans le type de fruit avec lequel elle étaient familiarisées. Elles se montrèrent aussi capables que les mouches d'une population polyphage de l'île de Maui d'apprendre à accepter de nouveaux fruits pour pondre. Des expériences complémentaires ont été réalisées dans lesquelles les mouches étaient mises en présence de fruits de M. paniculata ou de C. sinensis naturels ou couverts de cire colorée ou encore de fruits artificiels. Les résultats suggèrent que la taille du fruit est le principal critère d'apprentissage utilisé pour trouver M. paniculata ou C. sinensis, la couleur et l'odeur du fruit étant apparus comme de moindre importance ou sans effet.
    Notes: Abstract Wild Mediterranean fruit fly females, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from an essentially monophagous population on the island of Hawaii were exposed to natural mock orange (Murraya paniculata) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) host fruit hung from branches of potted trees for 3-day periods in field enclosures. Subsequently, when flies were released individually onto potted trees harboring one or the other (or a mixture) of these fruit types, a higher proportion visited the type of fruit with which they were familiar (and visitors found familiar fruit faster) compared with the fruit type with which they were unfamiliar. Moreover, fruit-finding flies of this monophagous population attempted oviposition exclusively in the familiar fruit type, and thus appeared to be just as capable of learning to accept fruit for oviposition as wild flies from a previously-tested polyphagous population on the island of Maui. Additional tests were conducted in which flies were exposed to natural or colored-wax-covered mock oranges or sweet oranges and tested for response to colored-wax-covered natural or artificial fruit. Results suggested that fruit size was the principal character learned and used in finding mock orange or sweet orange fruit, while fruit color and odor appeared to be of little or no importance in this regard.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; medfly ; parasite ; oviposition ; marking pheromone ; stimulant ; deterrent ; superparasitism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Under controlled conditions, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann) preferred to initiate oviposition into preexisting, naturally formed oviposition punctures in a host fruit, kumquat (Fortunella japonica),over establishing new sites on the fruit. This preference was expressed despite the presence of naturally deposited host-marking pheromone (HMP)shown previously to deter oviposition. An almost-identical preference for existing punctures was expressed when females were presented with fruit bearing artificially made punctures on which HMP had been naturally deposited. Using artificial punctures and HMP extracts, the occurrence of punctures was manipulated independently of the presence of HMP.Under field-cage conditions, we found that (1) punctures stimulated egg-laying on kumquats, regardless of HMP treatment; (2) HMP extract inhibited egg-laying, regardless of the occurrence of punctures; and (3) the extent to which HMP inhibited egg-laying was greater on fruit free of punctures than on fruit bearing them. The physiological, evolutionary, and pest management implications of these results are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; interpopulation variation ; propensity ; genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei zwei Wildherkünften und einem Laboratoriumsstamm von Ceratitis capitata wurden Weibchen auf ihre Neigung zur Probebohrung in Früchte vor der Eiablage untersucht; dabei ergaben sich gesicherte Unterschiede zwischen den Populationen. Die Resultate deuten drauf hin, (a) dass die Fruchtgrösse einen grossen, und die taxonomische Stellung der Früchte einen kleinen Einfluss auf das Annahmemuster der Populationen ausübt, und (b) dass mindestens ein Teil der Unterschiede zwischen den Populationen genetisch bedingt ist.
    Notes: Abstract Significant inter-populational differences in propensity to attempt boring into (accept) various types of fruit for oviposition were found among Ceratitis capitata females from two wild sources and one laboratory source. Evidence suggests that (a) fruit size had a strong influence whereas fruit taxonomic status had little influence on the acceptance pattern of each population, and (b) at least a portion of the inter-populational variation had a genetic basis.
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