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  • Ceratitis capitata  (9)
  • Springer  (9)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
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  • Springer  (9)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: pheromone ; Ceratitis capitata ; oviposition deterrent ; laboratory insect quality ; Tephritidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract During ovipositor dragging on the fruit surface following egg laying in hawthorne fruit,Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) females deposit an unidentified pheromone that deters repeated oviposition attempts in that fruit. The pheromone proved water soluble and, when collected and sprayed in aqueous solution onto uninfested fruits in laboratory cages, effectively deterred boring attempts byC. capitata females of wild origin for at least 6 days (termination of test). A laboratory population ofC. capitata cultured on artificial media for more than 200 generations deposited pheromone that proved equally as deterrent to wild fly oviposition as pheromone from wild flies. However, lab fly oviposition was not effectively deterred by the presence of pheromone. The ecological significance of the pheromone is discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: host preference ; experience ; learning ; oviposition behavior ; Mediterranean fruit fly ; Ceratitis capitata ; host chemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Groups of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann), were exposed for several days to one of three host fruit species. Oviposition-site acceptance behavior was subsequently assayed on five fruit species. Females accepted most often the fruit to which they were exposed. Females exposed to a small fruit, mock orange, accepted other fruit species less often as the size of the fruit increased; females exposed to a large fruit, sweet orange, accepted other fruit species more often as the size of the fruit increased. This tendency for experience with one host fruit species to alter differentially behavioral responses to alternative host fruit species has been defined as cross-induction. In contrast, females exposed to a medium fruit, kumquat, were not cross-induced: females accepted the medium fruit very often and rejected all other fruit species to approximately the same degree regardless of size. When females were exposed to small, medium, or large fruit and tested on spherical wax fruit models of a variety of sizes, patterns similar to those with real fruit were observed. Whereas naive females generally accepted a given model as frequently as real fruit of a similar size, experienced females generally accepted models much less frequently than real fruit. In a final experiment, females were exposed to different fruits and tested on spherical wax models treated with fruit chemicals. Experienced females generally accepted fruit-treated spheres more often than untreated spheres. In addition, females usually accepted most often models treated with chemicals from the fruit to which they were exposed. Two hypotheses about the mechanism by which experience alters fruit acceptance— termed the “sliding template” and “closing window” hypotheses— are presented. Results of fruit and model acceptance by naive and experienced females support the latter hypothesis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; learning ; foraging ; oviposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des femelles sauvages d'une population essentiellement monophage de C. capitata Wiedemann, provenant de l'île de Hawaï, ont été mises en présence pendant des périodes de 3 jours dans des enceintes dans la nature à des fruits de Murraya paniculata et de Citrus sinensis suspendus à des branches d'arbres empotés. Quand les mouches ont été libérées individuellement sur les arbres empotés portant l'un ou l'autre de ces fruits (ou leur mélange), une plus forte proportion a visité le fruit avec lequel elles étaient familiarisées (et l'ont trouvé plus vite) que le fruit avec lequel elles ne n'étaient pas. De plus, les femelles découvrant des fruits de cette population monophage ne tentèrent de pondre que dans le type de fruit avec lequel elle étaient familiarisées. Elles se montrèrent aussi capables que les mouches d'une population polyphage de l'île de Maui d'apprendre à accepter de nouveaux fruits pour pondre. Des expériences complémentaires ont été réalisées dans lesquelles les mouches étaient mises en présence de fruits de M. paniculata ou de C. sinensis naturels ou couverts de cire colorée ou encore de fruits artificiels. Les résultats suggèrent que la taille du fruit est le principal critère d'apprentissage utilisé pour trouver M. paniculata ou C. sinensis, la couleur et l'odeur du fruit étant apparus comme de moindre importance ou sans effet.
    Notes: Abstract Wild Mediterranean fruit fly females, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from an essentially monophagous population on the island of Hawaii were exposed to natural mock orange (Murraya paniculata) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) host fruit hung from branches of potted trees for 3-day periods in field enclosures. Subsequently, when flies were released individually onto potted trees harboring one or the other (or a mixture) of these fruit types, a higher proportion visited the type of fruit with which they were familiar (and visitors found familiar fruit faster) compared with the fruit type with which they were unfamiliar. Moreover, fruit-finding flies of this monophagous population attempted oviposition exclusively in the familiar fruit type, and thus appeared to be just as capable of learning to accept fruit for oviposition as wild flies from a previously-tested polyphagous population on the island of Maui. Additional tests were conducted in which flies were exposed to natural or colored-wax-covered mock oranges or sweet oranges and tested for response to colored-wax-covered natural or artificial fruit. Results suggested that fruit size was the principal character learned and used in finding mock orange or sweet orange fruit, while fruit color and odor appeared to be of little or no importance in this regard.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8889
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; medfly ; parasite ; oviposition ; marking pheromone ; stimulant ; deterrent ; superparasitism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Under controlled conditions, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann) preferred to initiate oviposition into preexisting, naturally formed oviposition punctures in a host fruit, kumquat (Fortunella japonica),over establishing new sites on the fruit. This preference was expressed despite the presence of naturally deposited host-marking pheromone (HMP)shown previously to deter oviposition. An almost-identical preference for existing punctures was expressed when females were presented with fruit bearing artificially made punctures on which HMP had been naturally deposited. Using artificial punctures and HMP extracts, the occurrence of punctures was manipulated independently of the presence of HMP.Under field-cage conditions, we found that (1) punctures stimulated egg-laying on kumquats, regardless of HMP treatment; (2) HMP extract inhibited egg-laying, regardless of the occurrence of punctures; and (3) the extent to which HMP inhibited egg-laying was greater on fruit free of punctures than on fruit bearing them. The physiological, evolutionary, and pest management implications of these results are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; interpopulation variation ; propensity ; genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei zwei Wildherkünften und einem Laboratoriumsstamm von Ceratitis capitata wurden Weibchen auf ihre Neigung zur Probebohrung in Früchte vor der Eiablage untersucht; dabei ergaben sich gesicherte Unterschiede zwischen den Populationen. Die Resultate deuten drauf hin, (a) dass die Fruchtgrösse einen grossen, und die taxonomische Stellung der Früchte einen kleinen Einfluss auf das Annahmemuster der Populationen ausübt, und (b) dass mindestens ein Teil der Unterschiede zwischen den Populationen genetisch bedingt ist.
    Notes: Abstract Significant inter-populational differences in propensity to attempt boring into (accept) various types of fruit for oviposition were found among Ceratitis capitata females from two wild sources and one laboratory source. Evidence suggests that (a) fruit size had a strong influence whereas fruit taxonomic status had little influence on the acceptance pattern of each population, and (b) at least a portion of the inter-populational variation had a genetic basis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; learning ; conditioning ; oviposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Dans la même population sauvage de C. capitata, on a observé des différences significatives dans la tendance à essayer de pondre dans divers types de fruits. Les faits rapportés suggèrent qu'un apprentissage pendant la ponte sur un type de fruits conditionne la femelle à cet hôte, et influe sur les réponses de la femelle à d'autres hôtes lors de rencontres ultérieures.
    Notes: Abstract Significant differences in propensity to attempt oviposition into various types of fruit were found among Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, from the same wild population. Evidence presented suggests repeated exposure to one host fruit type conditions females to that host, and influences female response to other hosts in future encounters. Reversibility of conditioning was also demonstrated. Learning to refuse a novel host type is indicated as being more important than learning to accept a familiar host type in medfly conditioning to hosts.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; learning ; genetic variation ; oviposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des Ceratitis capitata femelles, élevées au laboratoire ou obtenues dans la nature à partir d'Eriobotrya japonica, ont été mises en présence de Citrus sinensis et de Murraya paniculata. L'effet de l'accoutumance à une espèce de fruit sur l'acceptation ultérieure des fruits d'une espèce déterminée (c'est-à-dire l'apprentissage) n'était pas le même pour les mouches sauvages et pour les mouches de laboratoire accoutumées à M. paniculata. Les mouches sauvages accoutumées à M. paniculata tentent de pondre dans C. sinensis beaucoup moins fréquemment que dans M. paniculata. Par contre, les mouches de laboratoire accoutumées à M. paniculata tentent de pondre dans M. paniculata aussi souvent que dans C. sinensis. Des différences du même type entre mouches sauvages et mouches du laboratoire ont été observées quand les individus mis en expérience avec une espèce de fruit ont été ensuite exposés à l'autre espèce, c'est-à-dire lors de réapprentissage. L'acceptation finale par les mouches de laboratoire dépend un peu plus de l'exposition à C. sinensis et un peu moins à celle de M. paniculata que lors de l'acceptation finale par des mouches sauvages. Enfin, des mouches sauvages accoutumées à C. sinensis et privées de leurs fruits, conservent un jour de plus l'effet de l'accoutumance, lors de l'acceptation de M. paniculata, que les mouches de laboratoire placées dans les mêmes conditions. Nous émettons l'hypothèse qu'une sélection due aux conditions d'élevage est à l'origine de ces différences. L'élevage dans de grandes bouteilles de polyéthylène peut sélectionner des mouches qui apprennent plus difficilement en présence de petits fruits comme M. paniculata et qui conservent l'influence de l'expérience pendant un temps plus bref.
    Notes: Abstract Laboratory-reared and wild-collected adult female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, were exposed to two host fruit species, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) and mock orange (Murraya paniculata Jack: Rutaceae). The effect of experience with a fruit species on acceptance of these fruit species (i.e., learning) differed between lab and wild females, but only for flies that were exposed to mock orange. Similar differences in fruit acceptance between lab and wild females were observed when individuals experienced with one fruit species were exposed to the other fruit species (i.e., switching). Finally, when each group was exposed to sweet orange, wild flies subsequently deprived of host fruit retained the effect of exposure on acceptance of mock orange 1 day longer than did lab flies subsequently deprived of host fruit. An hypothesis is presented by which selection under artificial culture gave rise to these differences.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; foraging behavior ; oviposition ; Tephritidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Nous avons étudié le comportement de prospection dans un arbre, de femelles d'une population sauvage de C. capitata, libérées individuellement à l'intérieur de cages contenant des Eriobotrya japonica (kumquat), portant chacun 3 densités différentes de fruits no contaminés (0, 3, 12 par arbre) et chacun 2 niveaux de qualité de fruits: 12 fruits non infestés ou 12 fruits contaminés par des oeufs et recouverts de phéromone de marquage de l'hôte. C. capitata avait terndance à rester plus longtemps dans les arbres, à visiter plus de fruits avant le quitter, à pondre plus souvent, à accepter proportionnellement un nombre plus réduit de fruits déjà visités, à émigrer plus tôt après la ponte du dernier oeuf (c'est-à-dire à présenter un temps d'abandon plus bref), quand la densité des fruits non contaminés augmentait. C. capitata a dépensé beaucoup moins de temps, pondu beaucoup moins souvent, et présenté un temps d'abandon plus long sur les arbres portant des fruits marqués par la phéromone que sur ceux ayant des fruits non contaminés. Les variations de température dans la gamme de cells où les observations ont eu lieu (23–36°C) n'ont eu qu'une faible influence décelable sur le comportement de prospection. Nous avons comparé nos résultats avec ceux publiés sur la prospection à l'intérieur de l'arbre par une autre téphritide (Rhagoletis pomonella) et avec la théorie dominante sur le comportement de prospection. Nous discutons les conséquences de nos résultats sur les stratégies de lutte contre C. capitata, en particulier l'élimination des fruits dans les plans d'erradication et l'utilisation de phéromone synthétique de marquage.
    Notes: Abstract We examined the intra-tree foraging behavior of individually-released, wild-population Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), on field-caged host trees bearing each of three different densities (0, 3, or 12 per tree) of non-infested host fruit (kumquat) or each of two levels of fruit quality (12 non-infested fruit or 12 fruit infested with eggs and covered with host marking pheromone). With increasing density of non-infested fruit, medflies tended to remain longer in trees, visit more fruit before leaving, oviposit more often, accept a proportionately smaller number of fruit visited, and emigrate sooner after the last egg was laid (i.e. have a shorter Giving-Up-Time). Medflies spent much less time, oviposited much less often, and exhibited a longer Giving-Up-Time on trees harboring pheromone-marked fruit than non-infested fruit. Variation in temperature within the range at which experiments were conducted (25–36°C) had little detectable influence on foraging behavior. We compare our findings with published findings on the intra-tree foraging behavior of another tephritid fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and with current foraging behavior theory. We discuss implications of our findings with respect to medfly management strategies, particularly fruit stripping in eradication programs and use of synthetic marking pheromone for control.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Keywords: Ceratitis capitata ; bait sprays ; bird feces ; physiological state
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In studies carried out on field-caged non-fruiting host trees, we examined effects of environmental and adult physiological and experiential state factors on responses of released Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to droplets of proteinaceous bait (PIB-7) with or without 20% insecticide (malathion). We confirmed that fresh PIB-7 is both attractive and phagostimulatory to protein-deprived medflies and found that presence of 20% malathion ultra low volume concentrate (ULVC) in PIB-7 droplets does not significantly repel medflies from approaching droplets but does significantly deter feeding on them. A single relatively fresh deposit of bird feces, an important source of protein for medflies in natural environments, attracted several times more laboratory-cultured and wild medflies than 20 droplets of 80% PIB-7/20% malathion ULVC (about the average number of droplets per m2 of plant canopy in aerial bait spray programs). Attraction to protein was significantly greater among wild medflies deprived of protein continuously from eclosion than among wild medflies that had recent (within 3 days) or continuous access to protein. Attraction to protein increased significantly with increasing age (2, 7 and 12 days) of protein-deprived wild medflies. But we found no significant positive impact of recent brief experience of wild medflies with protein on degree of subsequent attraction to protein. In final experiments that mimicked the size, density and distribution of bait spray droplets on tree foliage typical for an aerial medfly control program, very few (4%) or no released protein-deprived wild medflies found a bait droplet within the 15 min test period even though most found a single deposit of bird feces. We conclude that the effectiveness of aerial bait sprays against medflies might be enhanced substantially (and the proportion of infested area treated with bait spray reduced considerably) by (1) including synthetic equivalents of attractive components of bird feces in the spray mixture, and (2) adjusting spatial and temporal patterns of bait spray applications according to estimates of the composition and abundance of natural medfly food and the age structure of medfly adult populations in infested regions.
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