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  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)  (1)
  • Cereal grain  (1)
  • Springer  (2)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (2)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Years
  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Electron capture detection ; Trichothecenes ; Cereal grain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Various analytical methods developed for trichothecene determination, including TLC, HPLC, GC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and enzyme immuno assay (EIA) are reviewed. In addition a new method is described for the simultaneous determination of the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and T-2 triol (TRIOL), in Austrian wheat and corn samples by GC-ECD. A clean-up procedure has been developed using a combination of liquid-liquid and liquid-solid extraction. Trichothecenes were detected as their heptafluorobuturyl esters or alternatively as trimethylsilyl ethers (only sensitive for deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) using nandrolone or chloramphenicol as internal standard. Four derivatization techniques using HFBI, HFBA+DMAP on polystyrene, TMSI and TMSI+BSA+TMCS have been studied and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Quantification of trichothecenes from 10 to 1000 ppb in cereals could be accomplished routinely.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Pneumoconiosis ; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ; Disease models ; Animal macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract N-acetyl-beta(β)-D-glucosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme secreted by alveolar macrophages in response to phagocytosis of particulate material. Alveolar macrophages participate in the degradation and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue that results in pneumoconiosis. Known quantities of four characterized respirable dusts were bronchoscopically placed into the right caudal lung lobe of macaque monkeys. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from dust-exposed right lung and unexposed left lung of the same individuals at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks after dust instillation. The samples were tested for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity to determine if the enzyme levels could serve as an indicator of pulmonary injury induced by generic coal dusts when compared to known fibrogenic and nuisance dusts. Installation of generic quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dusts produced significant elevations of enzyme activity and increased numbers of macrophages in the dust-exposed lobes. Elevations in enzymatic activity and macrophage numbers were greatest in response to generic quartz dust. These results suggest that quantitative levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity may be a useful indicator of acute and chronic lung injury following exposure to fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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