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  • Chemical Engineering  (2)
  • MRI  (2)
  • Carbon monoxide  (1)
  • numerical algorithm  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Semimembranosus m. ; Lateral meniscus ; Anatomy ; MRI ; Oblique popliteal ligament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une étude morphologique et en IRM des terminaisons du tendon distal du m. semi-membraneux et des structures postérieures de la capsule du genou a été réalisée à partir de 42 genoux de cadavres. Un faisceau tendineux du m. semi-membraneux s'insérant sur la corne postérieure du ménisque latéral a été trouvée dans 43,2 % des genoux disséqués en plus des cinq faisceaux déjà connus : capsulaire, direct, antérieur et inférieur, ainsi que le lig. poplité oblique. Ce faisceau présentait trois types morphologiques : fin, large, rond. Quel que soit son type, sa traction vers l'arrière mobilisait le ménisque latéral. De ce fait, le m. semi-membraneux aurait également un rôle protecteur sur le ménisque latéral, identique à celui déjà décrit pour le ménisque médial lors de la flexion du genou. Lorsque le tendon du m. semi-membraneux présente un faisceau d'insertion sur la corne postérieure du ménisque latéral, il est difficile en IRM de différencier cette insertion d'une rupture du ménisque latéral et cela peut être une cause d'erreur diagnostique.
    Notes: Summary Forty-two cadaver knees were used for morphologic and MRI observations of the tendinous distal expansions of the semimembranosus m. and the posterior capsular structures of the knee. A tendinous branch of the semimembranosus m. inserting into the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was found in 43.2% of the knees dissected, besides five already known insertional branches; capsular, direct, anterior and inferior, as well as the oblique popliteal ligament. The tendon had three morphologic types; thin, broad and round. All three types moved the lateral meniscus posteriorly when pulled on. Thus, the semimembranosus m. may also have a protective function for the lateral meniscus as well as the already well established function of protecting the medial meniscus in knee flexion. When a semimembranosus tendon attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is present, its normal insertion is difficult to differentiate from a lateral meniscus tear in MRI and this may cause misdiagnosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Impotence ; Carbon monoxide ; Rabbit corpus cavernosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Carbon monoxide has been proposed as a possible neurotransmitter because of its ability to bind to the iron atom of the heme of guanylyl cyclase, which is similar to that of nitric oxide. To determine whether carbon monoxide exerts an effect on the penis, strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum were mounted in an organ bath for isometric tension studies and the effect of zinc deuteroporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase which metabolizes hemoprotein and releases carbon monoxide, on relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation (neurally mediated) was determined. Also observed was relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation after incubation with atropine and guanethidine to isolate nonadrenergic noncholinergic neurotransmission. Zinc deuteroporphyrin (10-6M, 10-5M, 10-4M and 3x10-4M) did not affect relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation in the absence or presence of guanethidine and atropine. Therefore, it appears that carbon monoxide does not contribute to neurally mediated relaxation of the rabbit corpus cavernosum.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Semimembranosus m. ; Lateral meniscus ; Anatomy ; MRI ; Oblique popliteal ligament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Forty-two cadaver knees were used for morphologic and MRI observations of the tendinous distal expansions of the semimembranosus m. and the posterior capsular structures of the knee. A tendinous branch of the semimembranosus m. inserting into the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was found in 43.2% of the knees dissected, besides five already known insertional branches; capsular, direct, anterior and inferior, as well as the oblique popliteal ligament. The tendon had three morphologic types; thin, broad and round. All three types moved the lateral meniscus posteriorly when pulled on. Thus, the semimembranosus m. may also have a protective function for the lateral meniscus as well as the already well established function of protecting the medial meniscus in knee flexion. When a semimembranosus tendon attachment to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus is present, its normal insertion is difficult to differentiate from a lateral meniscus tear in MRI and this may cause misdiagnosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematical geology 19 (1987), S. 549-559 
    ISSN: 1573-8868
    Keywords: nonnegative kriging weights ; kriging equations ; nonlinear optimization ; numerical algorithm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average ofn available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 33 (1993), S. 1452-1457 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A high-temperature radical scavenger, 2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), has been used to study the reaction mechanisms of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on thermal treatment. The effect of DPPH on the cyclization reaction of PAN in both air and nitrogen, investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), helped to verify the proposed reaction mechanisms, i.e., the free radical and the ionic ones. For PAN homopolymer, the peak temperature of the reaction exotherm shifted to higher temperatures and the heat of reaction was decreased with increasing DPPH concentration. For PAN copolymer with methylacrylate and itaconic acid, however, the effects of DPPH on DSC thermograms were insignificant. The effects of IPPH suggest that the reaction of the nitrile groups proceeds by free radicals for the homopolymer while by ions for the copolymer. The activation energies for the thermal reactions of PAN in both air and nitrogen were also estimated by the dynamic DSC method, and they proved to be highly dependent on reaction mechanism, environment of thermal treatment, and DPPH concentration.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 33 (1993), S. 1445-1451 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The temperature dependence of the nucleation effect of three sorbitol derivatives on the crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was studied by means of isothermal crystallization kinetic analysis. Isothermal crystallization thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were analyzed based on the Avrami equation. The Avrami analysis for the nucleated iPP was carried out with DSC data collected to 35% relative crystallinity, and the rate constants were corrected assuming the heterogeneous nucleation and three dimensional growth of iPP spherulites. A semi-empirical equation for the radial growth rate of iPP spherulites was given as a function of temperature and was used to determine the number of effective nuclei at different temperatures. The number of effective nuclei in the nucleated samples was estimated to be 3 × 102 ∽ 105 times larger than that in the neat iPP. The logarithmic numbers of the effective nuclei decreased linearly with decreasing degree of supercooling in the range of crystallization temperatures tested. The temperature dependence of the effect of the nucleating agents on iPP crystallization was given quantitatively in terms of the deactivation factor defined as a fraction of the particles that are active at a particular temperature but inert at the temperature one degree higher. The nucleation activity and its temperature dependence are considered to be cooperative effects of many factors, including the dispersion and the physical or chemical nature of the agent as well as the interaction between the agent and the polymer. It is suggested that the temperature dependence of the effect of a nucleating agent should be treated as a characteristic of a given polymer/ nucleating agent mixture.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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