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  • Chemical Engineering  (1)
  • Haemodynamic monitoring  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Fluid resuscitation ; Haemodynamic monitoring ; Stroke distance ; Doppler ultrasound ; Hypovolaemic shock ; Severe sepsis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: To assess the feasibility of constructing left ventricular response curves non-invasively during the fluid resuscitation of critically ill patients in the emergency department (ED) using a portable suprasternal Doppler ultrasound (PSSDU) device.¶Design: Prospective case series.¶Setting: Emergency department, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium. Patients: Shocked patients in the ED were diagnosed by predefined criteria. Only those thought to require standardised intravenous colloid challenges were observed i. e., sequential boluses of 3.5 ml/kg/10 min titrated against changes in stroke distance (Doppler surrogate for left ventricular stroke volume).¶Results: A total of 50 shocked patients were studied. Stroke distance was measurable in 45 patients. 35 patients were fluid responders in terms of stroke distance. Group mean stroke distance increased during resuscitation (8.6 ± 4.1 cm to 19.5 ± 4.6 cm, P 〈 0.001) and then reached a plateau value (19.6 ± 4.6 cm, P = 0.488). No response to fluid was seen in nine patients of which eight had severe sepsis. Alternative therapeutic approaches increased stroke distance for all of these patients. Evidence for right ventricular dysfunction was found as a cause for fluid non-response in the majority of patients with sepsis.¶Conclusions: Previous experimental work has shown that changes in central blood flow can be derived using the PSSDU device. This clinical feasibility study suggests that the PSSDU can help tailor haemodynamic therapy for an individual patient and give an early indication of treatment failure in the ED.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 18 (1972), S. 213-217 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Early turbulence has for the first time been observed in the flow of very dilute polymer solutions in tubes larger than capillary size. Flow rate-wall shear stress measurements were conducted in 0.553 and 0.660 cm. diameter pipes. Polyethylene oxide samples of two molecular weights were employed, dissolved in water-glycerine mixtures with viscosities ranging from 0.0261 to 0.160 poise. The flow rate-wall shear stress relationship for these solutions corresponded to Poiseuille's Law below a well-defined onset wall shear stress, at which the Reynolds number was less than the transition value for Newtonian fluids. As the flow rate was increased from the onset condition, however, the wall shear stress became progessively larger than that predicted by the Poiseuille relationship. The onset wall shear stress for the phenomenon increased linearly with solvent viscosity. Its relationship to polymer concentration was dependent on the solvent viscosity. An explanation for early turbulence is suggested on the basis of these results, and the relationship of the phenomenon to turbulent flow drag reduction is discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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