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  • Chemical Engineering  (2)
  • Physical Chemistry  (2)
  • DNA probe assay  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of reactions between 2-phenylethyl benzenesulphonates (2-PEB) and benzylamines in acetonitrile at 65·0°C have been studied; the mechanism was examined on the basis of the sign and magnitude of cross-interaction constants ρij and βij. In contrast to the reactions of 2-PEB with anilines in methanol, participation of the aryl-assisted pathway was negligible, with a strong indication that the reaction proceeds largely by an intermolecular SNi mechanism with a four-centre transition state (TS). The effect of substituents on the TS variation was in accord with the predictions of the quantum mechanical model.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 31 (1985), S. 667-675 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A scheme of on-line optimizing control is presented for a nonadiabatic fixed bed reactor which experiences a highly exothermic reaction. The control scheme has been devised to perform adaptive control of bed temperature and on-line steady state optimization simultaneously.Experiments were conducted with a pilot scale fixed bed reactor where partial oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride occurs. The reactor system was interfaced with a microcomputer for real-time control and optimization. With an objective function consisting of a net profit by producing maleic anhydride plus a penalty term on high bed temperature, it was clearly shown that the reaction conditions were driven to the expected optimum region.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 34 (1988), S. 676-678 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The negative slope (ΔρY+ 〈 0) of the Hammett-type plot using kinetic solvent isotope effect, log kSOH/kSOD versus σ+, for methanolysis of 1-(Y-phenyl)ethyl chlorides is rationalized by an ion-pair mechanism in which a solvent molecule attacks the relatively stable carbocation formed in the pre-equilibrium.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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