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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 2 (1962), S. 174-177 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The loss factor ratio is dependent upon temperature and the rate of change of mechanical load or frequency of the oscillatory loading. The limit of linear viscoelastic response is another variable which occurs at the break in the stress-strain curve. If storage modulus varies slightly, with magnitude of stress or strain, the data is considered linear viscoelastic. The only true test is in the limit of zero strain and independent modulus. Polypropylene's dynamic properties are most dependent on test temperature. The loss factor peak which can be controlled by temperature and pressure history during crystallization is an indication of the ductile-brittle transition point.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 7 (1967), S. 145-149 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 10 (1970), S. 289-292 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The dynamic mechanical properties of blends of polymer melts were measured using the orthogonal rheometer. Two-phase blends, polyethylene-polystyrene, polyethylene-poly-(methylmethacrylate), and polystyrene-polymethylmethacrylate, were studied. The in-phase and out-of-phase moduli were measured over the range of composition and at frequencies between 10-4 and 10 revolutions/sec.The out-of-phase modulus increases in a monotonic manner with composition. The in-phase modulus, however, shows a maximum with composition in two cases. Examination of the relaxation spectra of these blends shows that when no maximum occurs it can be written as an additive function of the spectra of the components. In the case where a maximum is observed in the modulus the measured spectrum of the blend is shifted in frequency relative to the calculated one. This is tentatively attributed to slight interpretation and solubility of one phase in the other in these cases.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 4 (1964), S. 165-168 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Studies of polymer morphology under ideal conditions approaching equilibrium structures have been shown to be valuable in the development of an understanding of the relationship of properties to structure. Practical fabrication operations do not permit the achievement of equilibrium structures in commercial products and its is therefore necessary to study the effects of processing on the actual structures that result. In addition, an understanding of the effects of processing variables on properties permits the development of fabrication operations which can be directed toward the improvement of properties. Topics covered include the effects of hydrostatic pressure during processing, effects of combinations of pressure and thermal history, relationships between thermal history and crystallization rates in isotactic polymers and the kinetic and morphological effects of flow deformation on crystallizable plastics.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: An experimental investigation of the dynamic mechanical response of molten polymers was performed using the Maxwell Orthogonal Reheometer. One purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of molecular weight distribution on the temperature dependence of viscoelastic properties. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures for both monodisperse and polydisperse materials which indicate that viscoelasticity is highly temperature dependent only for monodisperse polymers. On a molecular basis the reduction in temperature sensitivity for polydisperse materials logically can be attributed to the influence of the low molecular weight species present in a distribution on the relaxation spectrum. Since the relaxation spectrum largely determines all viscoelastic functions, the observations made from th dynamic data shown in this paper can be generalized to all viscoelastic experiments.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 8 (1968), S. 252-258 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Polymer melts exhibit a decrease in apparent viscosity as a function of decreasing time scale of shearing. In order to obtain an understanding of the mechanisms giving rise to this non-Newtonian behavior studies have been made of the dynamic linear viscoelastic response, the limit of linear viscoelastic behavior and the stress relaxation in polymer melts after steady state shearing. The results of these experiments are analyzed with respect to shear induced changes in the relaxation spectrum and the effect of these changes on the apparent viscosity.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 16 (1976), S. 189-199 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Some principles of rheology are applied to the study of the shear-induced crystallization of molten polymers. A new technique is described for measuring crystallization kinetics during isothermal flow at constant shear rate in a parallel plate rheometer. The crystallization rate is characterized by the time elapsed from the start of shearing until the rise in melt viscosity due to crystallization. The measured-viscosity and induction time for crystallization are shown to be independent of sample geometry. Kinetic data are presented for crystallization of three linear polyethylenes at shear rates of 0.03 - 30 sec-1. It is shown that shear flow has a strong accelerating effect on crystallization when the deformation rate exceeds a critical value. Comparison of results for the different polyethylenes reveals that higher molecular weight materials crystallize faster at a given shear rate and temperature. Finally, shear-induced crystallization of propylene polymers is shown to be unaffected by the presence of either a carbon black additive or a heterogeneous nucleating agent. It is concluded that the hydrodynamic origin of the shear-induced crystallization is elastic chain extension due to entanglement couplings between molecules. Furthermore, it is suggested that transient orientation effects during the startup of shear flow may have a dominant influence on the observed phenomena.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 19 (1979), S. 1092-1097 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A method of measuring the dynamic viscoelastic properties of polymers at large strain magnitudes, well above the limit of linear viscoelastic response, has been developed. A straight line relationship has been found between the dynamic stress and the dynamic strain above the limit of linear viscoelastic response. This straight line relationship can be described by a dynamic in-phase modulus that is a function of the maximum strain applied and the frequency of the applied dynamic strain. This rheological characterization method is demonstrated for a series of synthetic elastomers with various carbon black loadings.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 19 (1979), S. 1140-1150 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A method and apparatus for measuring the elastic and other properties of polymers in the melt state is presented. The recoverable strain magnitude and the rate of strain recovery have been measured as a function of: applied shear rate, applied shear magnitude, temperature and molecular weight. The elastic properties indicate that there is an abrupt change or “transition” in the response of polystyrene melts at temperatures well above the glass transition. This abrupt change is found to be molecular weight dependent. The results are interpreted qualitatively in terms of molecular structure and practical processing operations. The possible relationship of this “transition” to Tu, is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 20 (1980), S. 972-976 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The stress vs strain and strain recovery characteristics of a series of low density polyethylenes of various molecular size and molecular size distributions have been studied in the melt state. The results show that the high molecular size portion of the molecular size distribution dominates the stress vs strain behavior. The high molecular size component causes a large increase in the stress overshoot and steady state stress. The high molecular size component also has a strong influence on the magnitude of recoverable strain, The strain recovery characteristics are dependent on the amount of strain applied. For large strains (above the yield point) the strain recovers slowly to a large extent (Type I). For applied strains below the yield point the strain recovery is rapid and finished in a short period of time (Type II).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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