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  • Chemical Engineering  (10)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 3 (1957), S. 497-505 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The theory and design of continuous stirred tank reactors are extended to the complex but industrially important field of continuous-heterogeneous-reaction systems. The present investigation is concerned with the elementary process occurring when solid particles and a liquid flow into and from a single reactor or a chain of these reactors. The equations are developed for dissolution processes, and the theoretical size distributions and specific areas are confirmed experimentally. Performance is also related to operating conditions and reactor design.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theory of design of chemical reactors is developed for two-phase fluid systems where the rates of chemical reaction are low relative to the rates of mass transfer. Equations are presented for batch, column, and continuous stirred tank operations. Experimental data on the continuous hydrolysis of acetic anhydride in a benzene-water system operating countercurrently in a pulsed-flow sieve plate column and in a packed column are analyzed in terms of the theory.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 5 (1959), S. 413-418 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of high concentration gradients and high evaporative velocities on rates of mass transfer was studied by evaporating liquids into low-speed inert gas streams at pressures approaching the vapor pressure of the liquids.Inert gas concentration in some experiments changed nearly fivefold across the boundary layer. The velocity normal to the surface (owing to evaporation), usually neglected in comparison with main-stream velocity, varied from 0.038 to 19 times the main-stream velocity.The data for air-water, air-carbon tetrachloride, air-chlorobenzene, and helium-chlorobenzene systems were represented within experimental error over the Graetz number range of 0.1 to 1,800 by the flat-duct equations of Butler and Plewes (2) and also by the usual dimensionless plots.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is shown in a series of illustrative examples how the conversion efficiency of many reactions can be markedly affected by the type of reactor used, even though the temperatures, catalyst, and basic kinetics are already fixed by the chemistry of the process.For such purpose graphical and analytic criteria are developed which permit the selection of a continuous stirred tank or tubular reactor system to obtain the most advantageous conversion of raw material to desired product. When a continuous stirred tank reactor process is preferable, the optimum number of reactor stages for maximum conversion is one. An example is given of a case where a combination of a continuous stirred tank and a tubular reactor is advantageous.A new graphical method of reactor design for simple or complex reactions is also introduced. This method utilizes continuous stirred tank reactor data directly rather than batch data or kinetics analyses.Reactions are classified according to the kinetic and stoichiometric characteristics which determine the allowable design procedures and the differences in the compostions paths occurring in batch, tubular, or continuous stirred tank reactors.The mathematical analysis of continuous stirred tank reactor systems for complex reactions leads to a set of difference equations. For cases of zero- or first-order reactions these are readily solved as illustrated in examples, even when several independent components influence the reaction kinetics.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 7 (1961), S. 199-202 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Glass cylinders and spheres were crushed by slow compression in a hydraulic press. In all experiments the elastic energy stored in the specimen prior to fracture was measured. In some experiments the surface area of the resultant powder was measured by gas adsorption; in others the heat generation upon fracture was measured. The latter experiments show that considerable additional energy is fed into the fracturing specimen from the press. Local stress concentrations, and hence energy level at fracture, varied widely with particle shape. Calorimetric experiments suggest that real differences in crushing effectiveness, that is new surface per unit actual work done on the specimen, do occur. These differences are not due directly to the magnitude of the energy fed in from the press but rather to the effectiveness with which the stored or feed-in energy is used.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 6 (1960), S. 394-400 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A reaction process occurring simultaneously with an extraction by an immiscible phase is referred to herein as extractive reaction.Quantitative relations are developed which show how the rate of reaction, volumetric efficiency, and reactant conversion of a single-phase batch reaction can be enhanced by deliberately adding to the batch a second phase such as an immiscible solvent or an inert gas.Analytical solutions are also obtained for continuous-flow extractive reactions of first order and of simple or complex stoichiometry occurring in single- or multistage stirred-tank reactors. The effect of recirculated or side streams is included.Dilute systems and several types of reactions are considered. The equations are applicable, for instance, to liquid-liquid systems and solid-liquid or gas-liquid processes wherein reaction occurs in either the vapor or condensed phase.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 6 (1960), S. 574-578 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The theory of extractive reaction is extended to concentrated solutions where the distribution coefficients are no longer constant and where important changes in phase volumes may occur. The methods developed are applicable to simple or complex reactions of any order. Two- and one-solvent systems are treated, and convenient graphical methods are developed and illustrated with numerical examples.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 1 (1955), S. 480-487 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The usual graphical CSTR design methods are not adequate for the case of complex reactions involving competing or consecutive steps; therefore graphical design method based on the representation of batch data on a triangular diagram is given and illustrated by several examples. This method does not require a complete analysis of the kinetics of the reaction. Since material balances are easily represented on concentration spaces, the method is especially useful when the design includes recycling, or feed additions along reactor chain.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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