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  • Chemistry  (2)
  • Atmospheric composition and structure (transmission and scattering of radiation)  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Atmospheric composition and structure (transmission and scattering of radiation) ; Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (radiative process)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Since the discovery of the ozone depletion in Antarctic and the globally declining trend of stratospheric ozone concentration, public and scientific concern has been raised in the last decades. A very important consequence of this fact is the increased broadband and spectral UV radiation in the environment and the biological effects and heath risks that may take place in the near future. The absence of widespread measurements of this radiometric flux has lead to the development and use of alternative estimation procedures such as the parametric approaches. Parametric models compute the radiant energy using available atmospheric parameters. Some parametric models compute the global solar irradiance at surface level by addition of its direct beam and diffuse components. In the present work, we have developed a comparison between two cloudless sky parametrization schemes. Both methods provide an estimation of the solar spectral irradiance that can be integrated spectrally within the limits of interest. For this test we have used data recorded in a radiometric station located at Granada (37.180°N, 3.580°W, 660 m a.m.s.l.), an inland location. The database includes hourly values of the relevant variables covering the years 1994/95. The performance of the models has been tested in relation to their predictive capability of global solar irradiance in the UV range (290/385 nm). After our study, it appears that information concerning the aerosol radiative effects is fundamental in order to obtain a good estimation. The original version of SPCTRAL2 provides estimates of the experimental values with negligible mean bias deviation. This suggests not only the appropriateness of the model but also the convenience of the aerosol features fixed in it to Granada conditions. SMARTS2 model offers increased flexibility concerning the selection of different aerosol models included in the code and provides the best results when the selected models are those considered as urban. Although SMARTS2 provide slightly worse results, both models give estimates of solar ultraviolet irradiance with mean bias deviation below 5%, and root mean square deviation close to experimental errors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0323-7648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Steady-state photolysis at 365 nm has been employed to carry out a structure - reactivity investigation of the 2,6-dihalogen derivatives of p-nitroaniline (pNA). Detailed studies of the spectroscopy of these molecules were accomplished. Photoreduction behavior of the 2,6-dihalogen derivatives of p-nitroaniline in the presence of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) has been analyzed. The efficiency of these compounds as photoinitiators was studied by following the polymerization kinetics of the lauryl acrylate (LA) monomer by differential scanning photo-calorimetry (Photo-DSC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis of the polymers their number-average molecular weights, the number-average degree of polymerization, and the length of the kinetic chain were determined and information on the nature of the end-chain groups and the chain-transfer behavior of these photoinitiators systems were obtained. The polymerization activity of the 2,6-dihalogen derivatives of pNA proved to be higher than those obtained with conventional aromatic ketone photoinitiators.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: photopolymerization ; new bimolecular photoinitiator system ; photocalorimetry ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The photoreduction behavior of p-nitroaniline (pNA) in the presence of N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) induced by both steady-state (365 nm) and laser (337 nm) irradiation has been analyzed. The stoichiometry of the photoreduction reaction revealed that several amino radicals derived from DMA were generated by each photoreduced pNA molecule. The polymerization kinetics of the lauryl acrylate monomer (LA) photoinitiated by the pNA/DMA system has been studied by differential scanning photocalorimetry (Photo-DSC). The rate of polymerization was found to be proportional to the square root of both the incident light and the coinitiator DMA concentration. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to monomer and initiator concentration was determined, as well as the polymerization behavior under aerobic conditions. The polymerization efficiency of this photoinitiated system was much higher than that obtained with conventional aromatic ketone photoinitiators. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 35: 3801-3812, 1997
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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