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  • Chemistry  (38)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (5)
  • Organic Chemistry  (4)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cis (CP) and trans (TP) isomers of 1,3-pentadiene (piperylene) were homo and copolymerized with acrylonitrile (A) in bulk and emulsion, at 50°C, using azobisisobutyronitrile and potassium persulfate as free radical initiators. The cis isomer reacts more rapidly than the trans monomer. The copolymer compositions were determined from nitrogen analysis, 100-MHz 1H-NMR and 25-MHz 13C-NMR spectra. The results thus obtained show that both the bulk and emulsion processes yield copolymers characterized by a very similar composition. Data plotted according to the Kelen-Tüdös method indicate that the terminal-unit model is applicable to the piperylene-acrylonitrile system. Reactivity ratios for bulk copolymerization were as follows: rA = 0.079, rTP = 0.114, and rA = 0.033, rCP = 0.188. These values are very small and hence suggest a strong alternating tendency for acrylonitrile and 1,3-pentadiene in both comonomer systems. This latter conclusion is corroborated by the comparison of the NMR spectra of the synthesized copolymers with that of a standard alternating sample. The reactivity (Q) and electronegativity (e) of the 1,3-pentadiene isomers calculated from the reactivity ratios by the Alfrey - Price equations were QTP = 0.56, eTP = -0.97 and QCP = 1.215, eCP = -1.055 for trans and cis dienes, respectively.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0897-3806
    Keywords: myocardium ; transcoronary ablation ; anterior interventricular artery ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Miscellaneous Medical
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical explanation for the greater or lesser vulnerabilities of the left ventricular segments in the event of occlusion of each of the main coronary arteries. To this end, we analyzed the arterial perfusion of 1,080 left ventricular segments from 90 human hearts obtained at autopsy. Post-mortem angiography, dissection, and constriction of an arterial map using the classification of Selvester et al. (1982) were applied. By careful monitoring of the arterial perfusion of each segment we conclude that (1) obstruction of the anterior interventricular artery (AIV) especially affects the superomesial, superoapical, and anteroapical segments; (2) obstruction of the circumflex artery (CX) especially affects the posterobasal and posteromesial segments; and (3) obstruction of the right coronary artery (RC) especially affects the inferobasal and inferomesial segments. Vulnerability of the myocardially segments decreases in those segments which have collateral supply, i.e., those which are only relatively dependent upon a particular coronary artery. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chiral discrimination ; 2,3,6-Tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; Capillary Gas Chromatography ; ?-Alkyl-5-methylhydantoin ; Thermodynamic parameters ; Molecular modeing ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Permethylated β-cyclodextrin (hereafter designated perMe-β-CD), dililuted or not in polysiloxane, is an efficient chiral discriminant for native, 3-methylated, and 1,3-dimethylated series of 5-methyl-5-(CnH2n + 1)hydantoins. From thermodynamic data obtained with pure perMe-β-CD and with the aid of molecular modeling, it is concluded that: (i) For native hydantoin derivatives having a carbon chain at the 5-position varying from ethyl to nonyl (2≤n≤9), the retention time is related to their H-bonding capability. The resolution is poor for derivatives with n≤4. For n≤5, the resolution is considerably improved and this increase in resolution is attributed to the long alkyl chain being capable of being buried inside the cyclodextrin cavity. (ii) For 1,3-dimethylhydantion derivatives having a carbon chain at the 5-position varying from ethyl to hexyl(2≤n≤6), the retention time is mainly determined by a steric fit between the solute and the inner volume of the macrocyclic cavity. For n = 2, a particular behavior is observed, consistent with a total inclusion of the solutes inside the cavity. By contrast with the native hydantoins, the selectively is high for light derivatives. Thus, the selectivity does not correlate with a strong docking energy (such as the presence of H-bonds postulated with native derivatives). (iii) For 3-methylhydantoin derivatives having a carbon chain at the 5-position varying from ethyl to octyl (2≤n≤8), as expected, retension time and selectivity are intermediate between that of native hydantoins and 1,3-dimethylhydantoins. For all three series, where n≤5, the increase in chain length (n) does not bring about substantial changes in the chromatographic results. Therefore, for these long alkyl chain derivatives, similar dominant interactions with perMe-β-CD are postulated.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: High performance size exclusion chromatography ; molecular weight ; lignin derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The microstructure of diene units was investigated in radical homopolymers of the cis and trans isomers of 1,3-pentadiene and copolymers with acrylonitrile, synthetized in bulk and emulsion. Experiments were carried out by infrared spectroscopy, 100 MHz 1H-NMR, and 25 MHz 13C-NMR studies. No difference between the bulk and emulsion samples was noted. The microstructure of poly(1,3-pentadiene) is practically independent of the cis or trans configuration of the diene monomer and is as follows: 56-59% trans-1,4, 15-17% cis-1,4, 16-20% trans-1,2 7-10% cis-1,2 and 0% 3,4. On the other hand, up to about 30% of incorporated acrylonitrile (10% in the feed), the microstructure of the pentadiene fraction in the copolymers is not affected. This finding suggests that the penultimate unit has very little influence on the polymerization process involving the terminal pentadienly unit. Beyond 10% of acrylonitrile in the feed, the proportions of the structural units were linearly dependent upon the acrylonitrile content: trans-1,4 content increased whereas the amounts of cis-1,4 trans-1,2 and cis-1,2 decreased (except the cis-1,2 fraction, constant in the copolymers from the cis-diene). These results are discussed on the assumption that the microstructure of pentadiene residues is strongly associated with the acrylonitrile comonomer in the feed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0930-7516
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Local mass transfer studies have been carried out in an external loop airlift reactor and indicated the existence of significant non-uniformities in aeration capacity in the various sections of the reactor. The traditional assumption of a single well mixed unit with a single kL a value for external loop airlift reactors was found to be poor and cannot represent adequately the reactor as a whole. The liquid head in the gas/liquid separator was found to have a significant negative negative effect on the local mass transfer coefficient kL a. Visualization of flow patterns showed the existence of strong vortices in the riser and downcomer which contributed to a reduction in local aeration capacity. Mass transfer experiments in an aerated tank showed that the aeration capacity can be reduced by half in viscous media but improved significantly in the presence of salts.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: 119Sn NMR ; nJ(119Sn, 1H) values ; 2D 13C—1H and 119Sn—1H non-refocused COLOC (TPPI) correlation methods ; Organotin derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: nJ(119Sn, 1H) coupling constants were determined by 2D 13C—1H and 119Sn—1H non-refocused COLOC (TPPI) correlation methods. As the 2D 13C—1H method only gives access to coupling constants directly measured from the spectra, the proposed non-refocused COLOC technique is more general since it allows measurements in the case of satellites which are non-observable in 13C NMR spectra. An optimization method for the τ value in COLOC experiments is also proposed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: White matter ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Alzheimer's disease ; Corpus callosum ; Signal hyperintensity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have previously demonstrated with MRI that as well as marked white matter involvement in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), atrophy of the corpus callosum may also be present. This finding prompted us to study possible correlations between atrophy of the corpus callosum and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and between white matter lesions and the severity of the disease. We compared the corpus callosum and white matter lesions on MRI from 15 AD patients and 15 controls. The white matter lesions were scored according to the Scheltens' rating scale. We found a significant reduction of the area of the corpus callosum and more severe white matter lesions in AD patients than in controls. Both atrophy of the corpus callosum and the severity of lesions depended mainly on the diagnosis of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and on age but not on the diagnosis of presenile AD. We demonstrated a negative correlation between white matter lesions scores and areas of corpus callosum in AD patients and no correlation between the white matter lesions and the severity of the disease. We demonstrated that white matter lesions including WMH and atrophy of the corpus callosum are more frequent in AD than in controls. The predominance of white matter lesions in senile AD may be explained by the combination of aging and disease processes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis ; Amygdala Hippocampus ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The long-term neuropsychological and psychiatric sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) and their relationship to the volume of temporal lesions and to amygdala and hippocampus damage remain undefined. We have conducted a prospective study of longterm sequelae in 11 patients with clinically presumed HSVE and detection of HSV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Six months after encephalitis, patients underwent neuropsychological and language assessment. At the same stage, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) evaluated the occurrence of hypoperfusion with an index of asymmetry. MRI was used for the measurement of amygdala, hippocampus and cerebral lesions by two blind neurologists. The volume of the amygdala and hippocampus was compared with those of five controls, matched for age and level of education. Longterm memory disorders were seen in 6 patients, associated with the larger lesions and damage of at least two structures. Long-term behavioural changes with emotionalism, irritability, anxiety or depression were prominent in 7. Left prefrontal hypoperfusion appeared in 8 patients, associated with psychiatric disorders in 7 and left amygdala damage in 6. The reduction of amygdala and hippocampus volume was correlated with the overall volume of lesions. Different patterns of mesial temporal lobe damage occurred, involving either amygdala alone, or amygdala and hippocampus, but never hippocampus alone. MRI volumetric measurements in HSVE could be a good indicator of long-term prognosis. Persistant behavioural changes could be related to an amygdala and frontal dysfunction.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: bridging ligands ; magnetic properties ; manganese ; metalloenzymes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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