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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Microcolumn Separations 7 (1995), S. 395-402 
    ISSN: 1040-7685
    Keywords: field-flow fractionation ; flow field-flow fractionation ; flowrate programming ; separation of colloids ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A flow field-flow fractionation (FIFFF) system capable of accurate and reproducible flowrate programming has been assembled and tested. This modified system consists of three computer-controllable pumps, two that regulate the incoming and outgoing cross flowrates and one that controls the channel flowrate. The system also has a computer-linked balance that allows for instantaneous measurement of the cross flowrate. Programming of the field strength (or cross flowrate) was used to decrease the analysis time and improve detectability of late eluting peaks in FIFFF analysis. A six component latex mixture, with microspheres ranging from 20 to 426 nm in size, was used as a test material. With programming, this mixture can be separated in 8 min. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-02-02
    Description: The conserved kinases Mps1 and Ipl1/Aurora B are critical for enabling chromosomes to attach to microtubules so that partner chromosomes will be segregated correctly from each other, but the precise roles of these kinases have been unclear. We imaged live yeast cells to elucidate the stages of chromosome-microtubule interactions and their regulation by Ipl1 and Mps1 through meiosis I. Ipl1 was found to release kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) associations after meiotic entry, liberating chromosomes to begin homologous pairing. Surprisingly, most chromosome pairs began their spindle interactions with incorrect kMT attachments. Ipl1 released these improper connections, whereas Mps1 triggered the formation of new force-generating microtubule attachments. This microtubule release and reattachment cycle could prevent catastrophic chromosome segregation errors in meiosis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604795/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604795/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meyer, Regis E -- Kim, Seoyoung -- Obeso, David -- Straight, Paul D -- Winey, Mark -- Dawson, Dean S -- GM-07135/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM087377/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM051312/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087377/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007135/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 1;339(6123):1071-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1232518. Epub 2013 Jan 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23371552" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aurora Kinases ; Chromosome Segregation/genetics/*physiology ; Chromosomes, Fungal/*genetics ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Kinetochores/enzymology ; Meiosis/genetics/*physiology ; Microtubules/enzymology ; Mutation ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*physiology ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics/*physiology ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-07-07
    Description: Microbial populations stochastically generate variants with strikingly different properties, such as virulence or avirulence and antibiotic tolerance or sensitivity. Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria have a variable life history in which they alternate between pathogens to a wide variety of insects and mutualists to their specific host nematodes. Here, we show that the P. luminescens pathogenic variant (P form) switches to a smaller-cell variant (M form) to initiate mutualism in host nematode intestines. A stochastic promoter inversion causes the switch between the two distinct forms. M-form cells are much smaller (one-seventh the volume), slower growing, and less bioluminescent than P-form cells; they are also avirulent and produce fewer secondary metabolites. Observations of form switching by individual cells in nematodes revealed that the M form persisted in maternal nematode intestines, were the first cells to colonize infective juvenile (IJ) offspring, and then switched to P form in the IJ intestine, which armed these nematodes for the next cycle of insect infection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006969/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006969/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Somvanshi, Vishal S -- Sloup, Rudolph E -- Crawford, Jason M -- Martin, Alexander R -- Heidt, Anthony J -- Kim, Kwi-suk -- Clardy, Jon -- Ciche, Todd A -- 1K99 GM097096-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K99 GM097096/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R00 GM097096/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM086258/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):88-93. doi: 10.1126/science.1216641.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22767929" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Fimbriae Proteins/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Genome, Bacterial ; Intestines/microbiology ; Moths/*microbiology ; Mutation ; Phenotype ; Photorhabdus/cytology/*genetics/growth & development/*pathogenicity ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Rhabditoidea/*microbiology ; *Sequence Inversion ; *Symbiosis ; Virulence/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-20
    Description: Most cancer cells are characterized by aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes. We have identified a clue to the mechanistic origins of aneuploidy through integrative genomic analyses of human tumors. A diverse range of tumor types were found to harbor deletions or inactivating mutations of STAG2, a gene encoding a subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division. Because STAG2 is on the X chromosome, its inactivation requires only a single mutational event. Studying a near-diploid human cell line with a stable karyotype, we found that targeted inactivation of STAG2 led to chromatid cohesion defects and aneuploidy, whereas in two aneuploid human glioblastoma cell lines, targeted correction of the endogenous mutant alleles of STAG2 led to enhanced chromosomal stability. Thus, genetic disruption of cohesin is a cause of aneuploidy in human cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374335/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374335/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Solomon, David A -- Kim, Taeyeon -- Diaz-Martinez, Laura A -- Fair, Joshlean -- Elkahloun, Abdel G -- Harris, Brent T -- Toretsky, Jeffrey A -- Rosenberg, Steven A -- Shukla, Neerav -- Ladanyi, Marc -- Samuels, Yardena -- James, C David -- Yu, Hongtao -- Kim, Jung-Sik -- Waldman, Todd -- CA097257/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA133662/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA138212/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA169345/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA115699/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R21CA143282/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Z01 HG200337-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 19;333(6045):1039-43. doi: 10.1126/science.1203619.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21852505" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aneuploidy ; Antigens, Nuclear/*genetics/*physiology ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Line ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromatids/physiology ; *Chromosomal Instability ; Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Silencing ; Gene Targeting ; Glioblastoma/*genetics ; Humans ; Karyotyping ; Male ; Melanoma/genetics ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Sarcoma, Ewing/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-09-14
    Description: Changes in ambient temperature affect flowering time in plants; understanding this phenomenon will be crucial for buffering agricultural systems from the effects of climate change. Here, we show that levels of FLM-beta, an alternatively spliced form of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS M, increase at lower temperatures, repressing flowering. FLM-beta interacts with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP); SVP is degraded at high temperatures, reducing the abundance of the SVP-FLM-beta repressor complex and, thus, allowing the plant to flower. The svp and flm mutants show temperature-insensitive flowering in different temperature ranges. Control of SVP-FLM-beta repressor complex abundance via transcriptional and splicing regulation of FLM and posttranslational regulation of SVP protein stability provides an efficient, rapid mechanism for plants to respond to ambient temperature changes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jeong Hwan -- Ryu, Hak-Seung -- Chung, Kyung Sook -- Pose, David -- Kim, Soonkap -- Schmid, Markus -- Ahn, Ji Hoon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 1;342(6158):628-32. doi: 10.1126/science.1241097. Epub 2013 Sep 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Creative Research Initiatives, Department of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030492" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alternative Splicing ; Arabidopsis/genetics/*growth & development/metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Flowers/genetics/*growth & development/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; MADS Domain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Temperature ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 33 (1993), S. 83-91 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The memory effect of shear history was studied with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) prepared under different shear conditions of 11.7 to 1168 s-1 in a capillary rheometer. The shear history of PET resin led to a memory effect, which in turn affected the crystallization kinetics. The crystallization rate increased with increasing shear rate. Double peaks of heating crystallization exotherms and a low value of Avrami exponent appeared at low shear rates, which was attributed to the existence of crystallization processes with different rates; one was the fast process involving the disentangled molecules that persisted during melting, and the other was the slow process involving the highly entangled molecules. The change of instantanenous Avrami exponent and overall crystallization rate constant was in good agreement with the expected trends assuming coexistence of the two crystallization processes. The crystallization kinetics of PET with shear history could be regarded as a growth rate decrease problem to be interpreted by the modified Avrami equation, 1 - Vc = exp[- K·f(t)n], when the fast process dominated the overall crystallization. The effect of shear history was reduced because of the relaxation process as the holding time in melt state before crystallization was increased.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 31 (1991), S. 110-115 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A new crystallization kinetic equation has been derived considering the decrease in growth rate. The average linear growth rate of spherulite was assumed to be proportional to the m-th order of the uncrystallized fraction of the crystallizing material. A modified Avrami equation, 1 - Vc = exp[-Kf(t)n], was used where f(t) is the integral of the growth function, (1 - Vc)m. The validity of the equation was tested by analyzing the isothermal crystallization kinetic data of poly(ethylene terephthalate) from the melt using differential scanning calorimetry.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: polybenzimidazole ; polyimide ; blends ; miscibility ; infrared spectroscopy ; poly(amic acid) ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The precursor of polybenzimidazole (PBI), poly(3,3′-diamino-4,4′-benzidine isophthalamide) (PDABI), was synthesized from poly(3,3′-dinitro-4,4′-benzidine isophthalamide) (PDNBI) by reduction. With increasing temperature, the NH2 moiety which was protected by SnCl5-1 could cyclize and form PBI. Blends with polyamic acid (LaRC-TPI) were prepared. Clear blend films were prepared at up to 400°C. The IR spectra displayed shifts in the NH stretching band, thereby providing evidence for specific interactions related to the miscibility of their cured blends. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 26 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 1 (1990), S. 49-73 
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Aramids ; Substituted aramids ; Copolyaramids ; Benzoxazole ; Cyanoaramids ; Thermal degradation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Various aramids having a cyano group on the diamine ring were synthesized. Aramids containing a cyano group ortho to the amide bond underwent thermal degradation via a two step mechanism, whereas those containing a cyano group meta to the amide bond did not. The first step represented the loss of HCN resulting in benzoxazole polymers, which degraded further in the second stage producing high char yield at 900°C. The thermal studied of copolyamides from m-phenylenediamine, 2,4-diaminobenzonitrile, and iso- or terephthaloyl chloride showed that as the mole fraction of 2,4-DABN increased the initial decomposition temperature decreased, but the char yield and glass transition temperature increased gradually from the poly(1,3-phenylene isophthalamide) to the polycyanamide homopolymer. To confirm the nucleophilic displacement reaction mechanism rather than isomerization cyclization suggested by Barashkov et al. for aramids with the cyano group ortho to the amide bond, a high-temperature cell attached to a FT-IR spectrometer were employed. Model compound studies also showed evidence for the benzoxazole ring formation.
    Additional Material: 39 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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