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  • 1
    ISSN: 0049-8246
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Experimental measurements of the relative intensity of the escape peak produced in an intrinsic Ge detector agree quite well with the calculated intensities based on a theoretical model. Contrary to the Si(Li) detector Kα as well as Kβ escape peaks are observed. In the energy region 11-25 keV the Ge Kα escape peak intensities vary from 16.3 to 4.7% and the Ge Kβ escape peak from 2.4 to 0.9% of that to the parent line. Therefore, the escape peaks are not negligible in X-ray fluorescence analysis, and it may be necessary to numerically correct for them or, by a suitable choice of excitation energy, avoid them completely.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: bioreactor monitoring ; semi-on-line analysis ; aseptic sampling ; FIA ; SIA ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Monitoring of substrates and products during fermentation processes can be achieved either by on-line, in situ sensors or by semi-on-line analysis consisting of an automatic sampling step followed by an ex situ analysis of the retrieved sample. The potential risk of introducing time delays and signal bias during sampling makes it necessary to distinguish between real-time, on-line, in situ methods and semi-on-line analysis. In addition, semi-on-line analyzers are often mechanically complex - a circumstance which has to be given special attention during their industrial use on a routine basis. This review on semi-on-line analysis will focus both on the dynamics and precision of aseptic sampling devices and on the performance of flow injection analysis (FIA) and sequential injection analysis (SIA), especially with regard to their robustness when used in industry. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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