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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 33 (1993), S. 1452-1457 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A high-temperature radical scavenger, 2,2-diphenyl-l-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), has been used to study the reaction mechanisms of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on thermal treatment. The effect of DPPH on the cyclization reaction of PAN in both air and nitrogen, investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), helped to verify the proposed reaction mechanisms, i.e., the free radical and the ionic ones. For PAN homopolymer, the peak temperature of the reaction exotherm shifted to higher temperatures and the heat of reaction was decreased with increasing DPPH concentration. For PAN copolymer with methylacrylate and itaconic acid, however, the effects of DPPH on DSC thermograms were insignificant. The effects of IPPH suggest that the reaction of the nitrile groups proceeds by free radicals for the homopolymer while by ions for the copolymer. The activation energies for the thermal reactions of PAN in both air and nitrogen were also estimated by the dynamic DSC method, and they proved to be highly dependent on reaction mechanism, environment of thermal treatment, and DPPH concentration.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 33 (1993), S. 1445-1451 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The temperature dependence of the nucleation effect of three sorbitol derivatives on the crystallization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was studied by means of isothermal crystallization kinetic analysis. Isothermal crystallization thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were analyzed based on the Avrami equation. The Avrami analysis for the nucleated iPP was carried out with DSC data collected to 35% relative crystallinity, and the rate constants were corrected assuming the heterogeneous nucleation and three dimensional growth of iPP spherulites. A semi-empirical equation for the radial growth rate of iPP spherulites was given as a function of temperature and was used to determine the number of effective nuclei at different temperatures. The number of effective nuclei in the nucleated samples was estimated to be 3 × 102 ∽ 105 times larger than that in the neat iPP. The logarithmic numbers of the effective nuclei decreased linearly with decreasing degree of supercooling in the range of crystallization temperatures tested. The temperature dependence of the effect of the nucleating agents on iPP crystallization was given quantitatively in terms of the deactivation factor defined as a fraction of the particles that are active at a particular temperature but inert at the temperature one degree higher. The nucleation activity and its temperature dependence are considered to be cooperative effects of many factors, including the dispersion and the physical or chemical nature of the agent as well as the interaction between the agent and the polymer. It is suggested that the temperature dependence of the effect of a nucleating agent should be treated as a characteristic of a given polymer/ nucleating agent mixture.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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