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  • 1
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The metabolism of ranolazine (RS-43285) or (+)N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-[2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-propyl]-1-piperazine acetamide dihydrochloride was investigated in man using plasma samples obtained from four different clinical studies. The metabolite profiles following single and multiple doses of 342 mg instant release (IR) ranolazine, following multiple doses of 1000 mg sustained release (SR) ranolazine and following dosing with both ranolazine (IR) and a potentially co-administered drug, diltiazem, were compared. Metabolism of ranolazine in man was shown by LC/MS analysis to be extensive with up to seven primary routes of metabolism identified. N-dealkylation by hydrolysis at the piperazine ring produced three metabolites whilst O-demethylation and O-dearylation at the methoxyphenoxy moiety produced a further two compounds. Additionally, hydrolysis of the amide group formed one other species. Oxygenation at various points in the molecule produced a further four metabolites. Direct conjugation of ranolazine with glucuronic acid and with an uncharacterized adduct were also identified as a route of elimination. Ten other biotransformation products were formed as a result of multiple metabolic steps. Conjugation was also associated with the desmethyl metabolite (glucuronide and unidentified conjugates) of hydroxylated ranolazine. In a previous publication (Journal of Chromatography, 1995, accepted for publication) semi-quantitative analyses of pooled plasma from the study where ranolazine was dosed at 1000 mg twice daily showed that of the twelve metabolites studied only four accounted for AUC's in excess of 10% of the ranolazine AUC.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The mobility of purified μ opioid binding protein in SDS-polyacrylamide gek electrophoresis is sensitive to the presence of reducing agents. In the presence of increasing concentrations of DTT the apparent molecular weight increases in a stepwise fashion from 53 kDa to 65 kDa. This reduction in mobility is attributed to the successive breakage of disulfide bridges, resulting in an increasingly asymmetric molecule. Treatment of cell membranes from various brain areas with reducing agents, such as DTT, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of opioid binding. Sensitivity to DTT inhibition varied between receptor types, μ 〉 δ ≫ κ. For μ receptors, agonist binding was considerably more sensitive to DTT than antagonist binding. Inhibition by DTT is readily reversible and is unaffected by Na+ and/or Mg2+ ions. Reversibility may be partially prevented by the inclusion of a low concentration of a reducing reagent such as glutathione which does not inhibit binding but blocks reformation of disulfide bonds. Scatchard analysis of saturation data shows that DTT causes a pronounced decrease in binding affinity with little effect on receptor number. It is suggested that disulfide bonds are essential for ligand binding and that cleavage of one or more of these bonds may play a role in opioid receptor activation by agonists.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 19 (1973), S. 467-473 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new approach for the lumping analysis of reversible and/or irreversible monomolecular reaction systems (MRS) with constant or time-dependent rate coefficients in discrete and continuous mixtures is presented. The observer theory initiated by Luenberger is proposed and extended to obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions of exact and approximate lumping of such systems. Examples are given to illustrate the implications of lumping and to demonstrate the generality and promising aspects of the observer approach. It is shown that this theory is a unifying method for the lumping analysis of MRS. New insights on lumping analysis are discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple heuristic method for the systematic synthesis of initial sequences for multicomponent separations is proposed and applied to a number of synthesis problems which have been solved previously using other methods. Based on reported costs, it is shown that the initial sequences synthesized for the test problems by the new heuristic method are cheaper than those obtained by other ordered heuristic methods. These initial sequences are also either identical to or at most a few percents higher in costs than those optimum sequences obtained by other algorithmic, heuristic-algorithmic and heuristic-evolutionary methods. The new method is straightforward to apply by hand and it does not require any mathematical background and computational skill from the user.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 29 (1989), S. 1574-1578 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The optical properties of polyetherimide resin as described by the complex index of refraction, N = n - ik, are derived by Kramers-Kronig analysis of experimental absorption and reflectance data obtained in the range 40 μm ≥ λ ≥105 nm. Potential uses of this polymer as a printed circuit board material and as a packaging medium for microelectronic circuitry and the relevance of optical data in laser-assisted processing schemes used in these and other applications are briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 19 (1973), S. 1254-1257 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new and simple algorithm based on the piecewise maximization of the Hamiltonian and a limiting process utilizing a penalty function of the control variables for the computation of suboptimal singular and/or bang-bang control, previously developed and applied to linear lumped systems in Part I, is tested on four typical nonlinear lumped and distributed systems of particular chemical engineering interest. The computational results have shown that the proposed algorithm is a very effective method for solving singular and/or bang-bang control problems with high state dimensionality, extreme nonlinearity, and multiple controls.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new and simple computational algorithm for obtaining suboptimal singular and/or bang-bang solutions of typical lumped and distributed parameter control problems is proposed. The algorithm is based on the piecewise maximization of the Hamiltonian and a limiting process utilizing a penalty function of the control variables. Theoretical developments and computational applications of the algorithm to several linear lumped parameter control problems are presented. Extensions and applications of the algorithm to nonlinear and distributed parameter systems are given in Part II.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The computer implementation and experimental verification of the practical model for high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) based on particle buildup and feed characteristic, developed in Part II, are described. It is shown that the new model can be used to satisfactorily predict the grade, recovery and concentration breakthrough observed in pilot-scale experimental studies of HGMS for the removal of sulfur and ash from water slurries of several pulverized Eastern coals. The experimentally verified model can be used to quantitatively identify the tradeoff of separation variables so as to optimize the magnetic removal of sulfur and ash from pulverized coal. The model can also be used to assess the technical and economical feasibility of the magnetic beneficiation of pulverized coal without extensive experimental tests.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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