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  • 1
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 39 (1993), S. 569-580 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A modified sieve (that is, T-By) tray uses a system of weirs and risers to approximate liquid plug flow over a cross-flow, circular-section tray. Vapor-liquid contact is improved using a system of curtain-pattern vapor holes and intermediate weirs to form cells across the tray that promote liquid mixing into discrete, wellmixed pools and stabilize froth. A theoretical model is used to analyze experimental data, guide tray design, and suggest new strategies for improving performance. These results indicate that tray efficiencies and stabilities can be increased without capacity losses. Pressure drop can also be manipulated to enhance performance.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: mRNA stability ; hairpins ; gene expression control ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An expression system has been developed for the introduction of DNA cassettes into the region between the transcription and translation start sites of a gene of interest. This cassette system was used to engineer mRNA stability through the introduction of hairpins at the 5′ end. A synthetic DNA cassette was designed so that the resulting mRNA hairpin would be positioned one nucleotide from the 5′ mRNA end. The hairpin-containing mRNA exhibited a half-life 3 times that of the mRNA with no hairpin, resulting in increases in both mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that it is possible to engineer mRNA stability as an additional means of controlling gene expression. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 557-580, 1997
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 29 (1989), S. 69-76 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mechanical properties, deformation modes under both uniaxial tension and compression, low temperature mechanical relaxation behavior, and resistance to fracture under dynamic loading have been investigated for a medium impact grade of polystyrene, Shear yielding is the dominant mode of plastic deformation in compression while matrix crazing, together with some tearing and cavitation of the rubber phase, occurs in tension. The craze microstructure, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is typical of that noted in polystyrene, with sharp craze-bulk interfaces and a characteristic midrib section. The presence of a third phase, possibly a processing aid, is evident in the TEM scans and in the dynamic mechanical data. The present data, together with the data obtained on polystyrene and on high impact polystyrene, are used to show the strong influence of rubber content on various mechanical properties, such as the tensile craze yielding stress, ductility, compression yield strength, degree of strain softening, and fatigue durability.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: mRNA stability ; plasmid copy number ; gene expression ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of mRNA stability and plasmid copy number on gene expression in Escherichia coli were evaluated by constructing multicopy (pMB1-based) and low-copy (F-based) plasmids containing an arabinose-inducible promoter system, the lacZ reporter gene, and mRNA-stabilizing 5′ hairpin structures. Product formation and cell growth were evaluated under a number of inducer concentrations. The introduction of a 5′ hairpin into the untranslated region of the mRNA resulted in significantly higher gene expression from the multicopy plasmids at low inducer concentrations and increased gene expression from the low-copy plasmids across all inducer concentrations investigated. With high inducer concentrations, expression from high-copy plasmids significantly slowed cell growth, whereas expression from the low-copy plasmids had little effect on growth rate. At inducer concentrations between 1 × 10-4 and 4 × 10-4%, the productivity of low-copy plasmids containing the 5′-hairpin was equal to or greater than that from multicopy plasmids. Together, these two gene expression strategies may find important use in metabolic engineering and heterologous gene expression. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:666-672, 1998.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2986
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A rapid method for determining the molecular weight distribution of polymers has been the aim of polymer chemists for a long time. The method presented here requires less than two hours, including dissolution of the polymer. It is an extension of a photoelectric turbidimetric technique presented by Taylor and Tung in 1961. The equipment has been completely redesigned and presently consists of a copper block containing a turbidity cell, optical system and attendant electronic circuitry for measuring relative changes in turbidity of polymer solutions as a function of temperature. An X-Y recorder is used to plot turbidity versus temperature. A parameter determined from the plot is correlated with a measure of molecular weight distribution determined on known samples for each type polymer by another means. Based on this correlation unknown samples may be analyzed. The instrument is easy to operate and has shown excellent stability over a two year period. Polymers studied by this technique include ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR), polypropylene, polyethylene, and butyl, however, the only results to be reported here are those on ethylene-propylene copolymer.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Polystyrene (PS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyethylene (PE) have been investigated studying the pressure dependence of stress-elongation behavior in tension over the range from atmospheric pressure to four kilobars at room temperature. The effect of strain rate was also observed for PS specimens. Tensile deformation of PS and HIPS has shown that the pressure-transmitting fluid (silicon oil) acts as a stress crazing and cracking agent. Non-sealed specimens of PS showed a brittle-to-ductile transition at 2.95 kbar while specimens sealed from the environment showed the same transition at only 0.35 kbar. Scales HIPS and PE specimens exhibited ductile behavior at all pressures. The extent of plastic deformation for PE was affected when specimens where exposed to the silicon oil environment. Surprisingly, HIPS exposed to the oil exhibited two transitions as the applied hydrostatic pressure was raised: a ductile-to-brittle followed by a brittle-to-ductile transition. Analysis of the stress-elongation curves for sealed PS and HIPS specimens indicated that the pressure dependency of craze-initiation stress differs from that of shear band initiation stress. The brittle-to-ductile transition occurred when the initiation stresses of both processes became equal. The principal stress for craze initiation showed almost no pressure dependency, suggesting that crazes initiate when the principal stress level of the tensile specimen reaches a critical value irrespective of the applied hydrostatic pressure.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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