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  • 1
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: human serum albumin ; electrokinetic chromatography ; chiral drugs ; ligand-ligand interactions ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: When a protein such as human serum albumin is added to the separation buffer in capillary electrophoresis, the mobility of solutes which bind to that protein may be altered. The change in mobility of the solute is a function both of the strength of the binding interaction, and the difference in mobility between the free solute and protein additive. By adding other ligands which themselves bind to the protein, the strength of the solute-protein binding may be modified, leading to a measurable change in the mobility of the solute. These effects are particularly striking for chiral compounds, where enantioselectivity may be completely lost on addition of a competitive ligand. Capillary electrophoresis with human serum ablumin as a buffer additive was used to separate the enantiomers of benzoin and three phenothiazine derivatives. A comparison of the binding of (S)-benzoin to human serum albumin as determined by capillary electrophoresis and by ultrafiltration was made. A variety of other ligands were then added to the buffer along with the protein, and the effects on mobility and enantioselectivity were studied. The displacers included (R)- and (S)-oxazepam hemisuccinate, (R)- and (S)-warfarin, nitrazepam, phenylbutazone, and octanoic acid. From the results obtained, it seems that capillary electrophoresis may be a useful, rapid method to screen for drug-drug interactions. There are some advantages of using this technique to study protein-ligand interactions: Only very small amounts of ligand are needed (useful when dealing with metabolites); for chiral compounds, if protein binding is stereoselective, then the method is also stereoselective, so single enantiomers are not needed; finally, measurements are obtained in solution, without the need for immobilization of the protein. A disadvantage is that the ligand and protein must have significantly different electrophoretic mobilities. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: perfluorocarbon ; affinity chromatography ; counter-current ; lysozyme ; triazine dyes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this work the development of a process capable of extracting proteins from particulate-containing solutions (such as fermentation broths) on a continuous basis, and in which adsorbent and process streams are contacted counter-currently is described. The process consists of four stages, required for the loading, washing, elution and regeneration of the adsorbent. Because of its counter-current nature, it has imporved performance over existing (though not yet commercialized) continuous processes, which have been based on CSTR-type contractors e.g. PERCAS (McCreath et al., 1993). The improved efficiency has been shown by carrying out extraction of lysozyme from a single component feed stream. The adsorbent used in this work is a Procion Red HE-7B-derivatized perfluorocarbon support, which has shown particular suitability for continuous processes due to its inherently high mechanical strength and high density. Results illustrating yields obtained using this equipment are presented and discussed.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: As(Si1BuMe2)3 (1) was prepared by the salt-elimination reaction between (Na/K)3As and 1BuMe2SiCl. Mixing LiAs(SiMe3)2 with Ph3SiCl (1:1) yielded As(SiMe3)2(SiPh3) (2) in a good crystalline yield. Reaction of 2 (1:1) with Et3Ga gave the expected Lewis acid-base adduct Et3Ga · As(SiMe3)2(SiPh3) (3). The 1:1 mole ratio reaction of In(SePh)3 with As(SiMe3)3 resulted in a ligand redistribution around the indium and arsenic centers to afford As(SePh)3 (4) in a low yield. The solid-state structures of 1-4 have been established by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Crystal data for 1, monoclinic space group P 21/c, with a = 11.112(2), b = 17.453(2), c = 14.199(2) Å, β = 114.89° for Z = 4; 2, orthorhombic space group P c21n, with a = 9.236(1), b = 16.612(2), c = 16.803(4) Å for Z = 4; 3, monoclinic space group P 21/c, with a = 16.799(1), b = 11.199(2), c = 19.413(3) Å, β = 112.22(1) for Z = 4; 4, trigonal space group R &3macr;, with a = 12.863(5), c = 18.96(1) Å for Z = 6. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The MS80 is a high resolution mass spectrometer of exceptional sensitivity because of new design concepts in ion source technology. The use of hexapoles enables this high sensitivity specification to be maintained throughout the resolution range. This is of prime importance in selected ion monitoring at high resolution. The power of selected ion monitoring as a technique for the detection and estimation of trace compounds in complex samples is greatly increased by the use of new software for the DS55 data system which introduces considerable flexibility in data processing. The data is recorded using a computer controlled sweep superimposed on peak switching. The user may then choose to integrate the data over any portion of the recorded mass range to eliminate interfering materials and also to average over any time interval to improve signal-to-noise ratio. Peak profiles are continuously displayed during acquisition as a guide to the progress of an experiment and available on recall for post-run processing. The use of the MS80 with this new software is exemplified by the detection of TCDD at trace levels in the presence of other chlorinated materials.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 9 (1997), S. 122-125 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantiomeric excess determination ; polarimetry ; HPLC ; enantiomers ; solvent effects ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Investigations into the parameters affecting the sensitivity of polarimetric detectors for the determination of enantiomeric excess by achiral HPLC are presented. The results obtained showed that the specific optical rotation of an analyte was highly sensitive to the methanol content of the mobile phase. The purpose of this short communication is to demonstrate that “off-line” optical rotation measurements are a necessary part of the method development process for successful use of polarimetric detectors. Chirality 9:122-125, 1997, © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dispersion of a pulse of O(3P) atoms in flowing helium has been analyzed by a modification of Taylor's method in order to determine the diffusion coefficient. Atoms of O(3P) were produced in a flowing stream of helium by a pulsed microwave discharge of molecular oxygen. After traversing a known length of the flow tube, the arrival time distribution of the O(3P) atoms was obtained using a mass spectrometer. The value obtained for D0 at 294 K, where D0 = D[He], is (2.40 ± 0.06) × 1019 cm-1 ·s-1, which corresponds to a diffusion coefficient of (731 ± 18) cm2/s at 1 torr. In addition to D0, analysis of the arrival time distributions gives an estimate of the mean flow velocity for O atoms in helium. There was no significant difference between the value of the velocity found this way and that obtained from the mean bulk gas flow measurement. Thus for this system there is no evidence for a chromatographic effect for O(3P) atoms on the walls of the flow tube.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dimeric gallium-phosphorus compound [(Me3Si-CH2)2GaP(SiMe3)2]2 (1) was prepared from the 1:1 mole ratio lithium-halide elimination reaction of (Me3SiCH2)2GaP(SiMe3)2Ga(CH2SiMe3)2Cl with LiP-(SiMe3)2 in benzene solution and has been characterized through multinuclear solution NMR, partial elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. Compound 1 could not be obtained from the direct reactions of (Me3SiCH2)2GaCl with P(SiMe3)3 or LiP(SiMe3)2. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Heteroatom Chem 9:147-150, 1998
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 17 (1971), S. 1226-1229 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Drop formation from submerged nozzles was studied using liquid-liquid systems of widely varying properties. The data were correlated using a momentum balance and a two-stage process of drop formation. The average agreement between data and correlation was 6.3%.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A finite difference technique capable of simulating steady, incompressible, viscous, free-surface flows has been successfully applied to the motion of a creeping Newtonian jet, including both surface tension and gravitational forces. In accordance with experimental results, the numerical solutions predict either a 12 or 16% increase in the jet dimensions depending on whether the jet emerges from a circular or a slit die. Both gravity and surface tension inhibit the swelling behavior.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 35 (1989), S. 1585-1591 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple design technique for heterogeneous distillation columns has been developed. The underlying geometric conditions which govern minimum reflux are shown to share certain common features with homogeneous distillations, but differ in some important respects. It is shown that heterogeneous columns display some unusual sensitivities to the design parameters. The most notable being the drastic swings in the composition and temperature profiles with very small changes in the level of trace impurities in the product stream.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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