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  • Chemical Engineering  (2)
  • Children  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Children ; Recurrent urinary tract infection ; Intravenous urography ; Voiding cystography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a prospective study 33 children (aged 6–14 years) consecutively referred for recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI), underwent intravenous urography (IVU) as well as voiding cystography (VC). Seven children had unilateral and two children had bilateral renal scarring, while ten children had unilateral and six children had bilateral vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). Following normal IVU VUR was demonstrated in 22% of the ureters, but in all cases of low grade. In abnormal IVU, i.e. renal scarring or dilatation of the ureters, VC showed high grade VUR in 54% of the ureters. Based on these results and the current theories on the significance of patient age and the grade of VUR, we conclude that in case of a normal IVU in children with RUTI and age of at least 6 years, there is no reason to supplement the pre-treatment evaluation with VC.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Children ; Cystourethroscopy ; Recurrent urinary tract infections ; Vesico-ureteral reflux
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Forty-one children aged 6–14 years consecutively referred for recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) and/or enuresis constituted the study group. Cystourethroscopy (CUS) was carried out in 40 children and pathologic findings were revealed in 70% of children with RUTI in the absence of vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). However, only in 4 patients did CUS influence treatment. Based on these data we conclude that routine CUS is not justified in the evaluation of this group of children unless anatomical infravesical lesions are suspected. VUR was proven in 44% of children with RUTI. In 86% of these ureters abnormal ureteric orifices were demonstrated. We therefore find CUS to be valuable in the assessment of children with both RUTI and VUR, because this examination is helpful in selecting patients who might need operation for severe VUR. CUS was not of therapeutic benefit to children with enuresis. Five patients with macroscopic haematuria during urinary tract infection were not managed differently following CUS.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A strategy for synthesizing regulatory control structures is developed within the framework provided by singular value decomposition (SVD). Quantitative measures of interaction and sensitivity for the nodes, as well as for the entire system, are established with this method. The approach enables analysis of the control struture over a range of frequencies which are of practical importance for a particular processing unit, thus insuring that both static and dynamic effects are encompassed. In addition, this method allows the designer to identify the modeling aspects which are important in determining the performance of the synthesized control structures. A series of examples, presented in order of increasing complexity, demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of this procedure. The technique is implemented as an interactive computer package.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 31 (1985), S. 135-146 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A method for assessing control performance at different operating conditions in a chemical process is developed using singular value analysis. The control potential of the system is established by analyzing the singular values of the steady-state system matrix. Dynamic considerations and interaction analysis can be included in the framework of the method described. The approach enables the process engineer to consider controllability of the process as well as economics in synthesizing a changeover control policy. Singular values depend on the scaling of the system, i.e., the definition of the physical dimensions of the system. The effects of scaling on the analysis are first investigated by scaling the steady-state system matrix with empirical methods, equilibration, and geometric scaling. Using the insights gained from these studies a scaling method, variable normalization and equation equilibration, which is intuitively appealing and suited for the purpose, is devised. Two typical systems, continuous stirred tank reactor and a polymerization reaction system, demonstrate the usefulness of this method.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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