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  • 1
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electrogenerated Chemiluminescence ; Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ; detector ; flow injection analysis ; HPLC ; biosensing ; immunoassay ; DNA probe assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Ru(bpy) 3 2+ electrogenerated chemiluminescence (CL) has rapidly gained importance as a sensitive and selective detection method in analytical science. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is observed when Ru(bpy) 3 3+ reacts with Ru(bpy) 3 + and yields an excited state Ru(bpy) 3 2+* . ECL emission can also be obtained when a variety of oxidants and reductants react with the reduced or oxidized forms of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ . Either the reductant or the oxidant can be treated as an analyte. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL is used as a detection method for the determination of oxalate and a variety of amine-containing analytes without derivatization in flowing streams such as flow injection and HPLC. When the ECL format is used as a detector for HPLC, unstable post-column reagent addition can often be eliminated and, the problems of both sample dilution and band broadening can be avoided because the Ru(bpy) 3 3+ species are generatedin situ in the reaction/observation flow cell. Since NADH is sensitively detected with the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL, many clinically important analytes can be detected by coupling them to dehydrogenase enzymes that utilize β-nicotinamide adenine cofactors to convert NAD+ to NADH. Ru(bpy) 3 2+ -derivatives are used as CL labels for immunoassay and PCR assay with Ru(bpy) 3 2+ /tripropylamine ECL system. The Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL label can be sensitively determined at subpicomolar concentrations, along with an extremely wide dynamic range of greater than six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, it can eliminate disposal and lifetime problems inherent in radio immunoassays. In this paper, basic principles of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are discussed. In addition, analytical applications of the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ECL are illustrated with examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Vestibular nuclei ; Neuroanatomy ; Vestibular projections ; Chinchilla
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The central projections of fibers from the vestibular nerve were studied in 19 chinchillas after horseradish peroxidase labelling. In addition, the limits of the vestibular nuclei and the anatomical characteristics of their neurons were also studied. All five vestibular nuclei received primary afferents, but there were extensive areas of them that received very little or no projections at all, such as the rostral part of the superior vestibular nucleus, the dorsocaudal part of the lateral vestibular nucleus, the caudal half of the medial vestibular nucleus and the caudalmost aspect of the dorsal vestibular nucleus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0268-2575
    Keywords: emulsion swelling ; additives ; HLB value ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Control of the swelling of two different liquid emulsion membrane systems for separation of lactic acid was examined. The major disadvantages of swelling are dilution of the separated product and emulsion breakage. Several additives including liquid paraffin, cyclohexanone and n-decanol were investigated with respect to both emulsion swelling and lactic acid separation rate. If swelling is a function of surfactant concentration, the swelling increases with the quantity of the hydrophilic part in the surfactant. Therefore, a surfactant with a low hydrophilic/lipophilic balance (HLB) value should be used to reduce the swelling. The use of Span 85 (HLB = 1·8) as co-surfactant achieved the objective in the case of a tri-n-octylamine/Span 80 system.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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