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  • Organic Chemistry  (28)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae  (10)
  • Yeast  (8)
  • Chlamydomonas  (6)
  • 1990-1994  (52)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Housane ; Norcaradiene ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Cycloaddition of a Very Reactive Cyanovinylcarbene with Benzene and 3,4-Dichlorocyclobutene. Molecular and Crystal Structure of 2,3-Dichloro-5-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5-housanecarbonitrile and 7-(1-Cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-7-norcaradienecarbonitrileThe cyanovinylcarbene 2 has been generated by photolysis of 3,3-dimethyl-3H-pyrazole-4,5-dicarbonitril (1) and the cycloaddition products with benzene and with 3,4-dichlorocyclobutene have been isolated. The molecular structures of the cycloaddition products 7-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-7-norcaradienecarbonitrile (3) and 2,3-dichloro-5-(1-cyano-2-methyl-1-propenyl)-5-housanecarbonitrile (4) were determined by X-ray analyses. The bridging bond of the bicyclo[2.1.0]pentane group in 4 is shortened to 1.515 Å by the electronic interaction of this group with the cyano substituent. The vinyl substituent has no influence because of perpendicular orientation.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Mitochondria ; Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ; RNA splicing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (mLRS) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in both mitochondrial protein synthesis and pre-mRNA splicing. We have created mutations in the regions HIGH, GWD and KMSKS, which are involved in ATP-, amino acid-and tRNA-binding respectively, and which have been conserved in the evolution of group I tRNA synthetases. The mutants GRD and NMSKS have no discernible phenotype. The mutants AWD and ARD act as null alleles and lead to the production of 100% cytoplasmic petites. The mutants HIGN, NIGH and KMSNS are unable to grown on glycerol even in the presence of an intronless mitochondrial genome and accumulate petites to a greater extent than the wild-type but less than 40%. Experiments with an imported bI4 maturase indicate that the lesion in these mutations primarily affects the synthetase and not the splicing functions.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase ; RNA splicing ; Group I introns ; RNA maturase ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene NAM2 codes for mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase (mLRS). Herbert et al. (1988, EMBO J 7:473–483) proposed that this protein is involved in mitochondrial RNA splicing. Here we present the construction and analyses of nine mutations obtained by creating two-codon insertions within the NAM2 gene. Three of these prevent respiration while maintaining the mitochondrial genome. These three mutants: (1) display in vitro a mLRS activity ranging from 0%–50% that of the wild type: (2) allow in vivo the synthesis of several mitochondrially encoded proteins; (3) prevent the synthesis of the COXII protein but not of its mRNA; (4) abolish the splicing of the group I introns bI4 and aI4; and (5) affect significantly the excision of the group I introns bI2, bI3 and aI3. Importation of the bI4 maturase from the cytoplasm into mitochondria in a nam2 − mutant strain does not restore the excision of the introns bI4 and aI4 implying that the splicing deficiency does not result from the absence of the bI4 maturase. We conclude that the mLRS is a splicing factor essential for the excision of the group I introns bI4 and aI4 and probably important for the excision of other group I introns.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; Chloroplast Hemoglobin ; Pyrenoid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract When the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas eugametos is grown under light/dark regimes, nuclear genes are periodically activated in response to the changes in light conditions. These genetic responses are dependent upon the activation of genes associated with photosynthesis (LI616 and LI637), nonphotosynthetic photoreceptors (LI410 and LI818) and the biological clock (LI818). We report here that the LI410 and LI637 genes are part of a small gene family encoding hemoglobins (Hbs) related to those from two unicellular eukaryotes, the ciliated protozoa Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Investigations of the intracellular localization of C. eugametos Hbs by means of immunogold electron microscopy indicate that these proteins are predominantly located in the chloroplast, particularly in the pyrenoid and the thylakoid region. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first evidence for the presence of Hbs in chloroplasts. Alignment of the LI637 cDNA nucleotide sequence with its corresponding genomic sequence indicates that the L1637 gene contains three introns, the positions of which are compared with those in the Hb genes of plants, animals and the ciliate P. caudatum. Although the LI637 gene possesses a three-intron/four-exon pattern similar to that of plant leghemoglobin genes, introns are inserted at different positions. Similarly the position of the single intron in the P. caudatum gene differs from the intron sites in the LI637 gene. The latter observations argue against the current view that all eukaryotic Hbs have evolved from a common ancestor having a gene structure identical to that of plant or animal Hbs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Bud site selection ; Guanine exchange factor ; Ras
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) activity for Ras proteins has been associated with a conserved domain in Cdc25p, Sdc25p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other proteins recently found in other eukaryotes. We have assessed the structure-function relationships between three different members of this family in S. cerevisiae, Cdc25p, Sdc25p and Bud5p. Cdc25p controls the Ras pathway, whereas Bud5p controls bud site localization. We demonstrate that the GEF domain of Sdc25p is closely related to that of Cdc25p. We first constructed a thermosensitive allele of SDC25 by specifically altering amino acid positions known to be changed in the cdc25-1 mutation. Secondly, we constructed three chimeric genes from CDC25 and SDC25, the products of which are as active in the Ras pathway as are the wild-type proteins. In contrast, similar chimeras made between CDC25 and BUD5 lead to proteins that are inactive both in the Ras and budding control pathways. This difference in the ability of chimeric proteins to retain activity allows us to define two subclasses of structurally different GEFs: Cdc25p and Sdc25p are Ras-specific GEFs, and Bud5p is a putative GEF for the Rsr1/Bud1 Rap-like protein.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Translation ; Splicing ; Paromomycin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The MSS51 gene product has been previously shown to be involved in the splicing of the mitochondrial pre-mRNA of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COX1). We show here that it is specifically required for the translation of the COX1 mRNA. Furthermore, the paromomycin-resistance mutation (P inf454 supR ) which affects the 15 S mitoribosomal RNA, interferes, directly or indirectly, with the action of the MSS51 gene product. Possible roles of the MSS51 protein on the excision of COX1 introns are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; Intron ; Apocytochrome b-Gene conversion ; Mitochondrial DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The mitochondrial DNA of the two interfertile algal species Chlamydomonas smithii and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are co-linear with the exception of ca. 1 kb insertion (the a insert) present in C. smithii DNA only. In vegetative diploids resulting from interspecific crosses, mitochondrial genomes are transmitted biparentally except for the a insert which is transmitted to all C. reinhardtii molecules in a manner reminiscent of the intron-mediated conversion event that occurs at the omega locus in yeast mitochondria, under the action of the I-SceI endonuclease. Here we report that the α insert corresponds to a typical group I intron of 1075 bp, inserted within the gene for apocytochrome b and containing a 237 codon open reading frame (ORF). We also report the complete sequence of the apocytochrome b gene of C. smithii. Comparison with the sequence of the same gene in C. reinhardtii reveals the precise intron insertion site. These data, together with the previous genetic data provide the first example of intron mobility in mitochondria of the plant kingdom. The product of the intronic ORF shows 36% amino acid identity with the I-SceI endonuclease whereas the intron ribozyme shows a 60% identity at the nucleotide level with the Neurospora crassa cob · 1 intron. The possibility of a recent horizontal transfer of introns between fungi and algae is discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell cycle ; Proline ; DNA sequencing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We report here the isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which exhibit cdc phenotypes. The recessive mutations defined four complementation groups, named ore1, ore2, ore3 and ore4. At the non-permissive temperature, strains bearing these mutations arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The wild-type allele of the gene altered in ore2 mutants was cloned. The nucleotide sequence of a fragment which can complement the mutation showed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein with 286 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 25% identity with that of the Escherichia coli Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, an enzyme of the pathway for the biosynthesis of proline. The ore2 mutants, correspondingly, were found to be capable of growing at the non-permissive temperature on a synthetic medium supplemented with proline. In addition, the chromosomal location of the gene and its restriction map were compatible with those previously reported for the PRO3 gene which encodes the S. cerevisiae Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA transmission ; Chlamydomonas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The linear mitochondrial DNAs of the two infertile algal species Chlamydomonas smithii and C. reinhardtii are co-linear with the exception of a 1 kb intron (α intron) located in the cytochrome b gene of C. smithii. C. smithii also possesses an additional HpaI restriction site (H marker) located in the COXI gene, about 5 kb from the intron. In reciprocal crosses, C. smithii (H +α+) × C. reinhardtii (H −α−), the α intron is transmitted to all diploid progeny, whereas the H marker is frequently transmitted either biparentally or paternally depending on whether the C. smithii parent is maternal (mt +) or paternal (mt −). In diploids resulting from artificial fusion between vegetative cells, the absolute transmission of a is accompanied by the frequent transmission of the H + marker, irrespective of the mating type of the parental strains. Finally, in reciprocal crosses between C. smithii (H +α+) and recombinant H −α+ clones, the transmission of the H marker is predominantly paternal or biparental. These results allow us to conclude that (1) the a intron behaves as a group I intron whose unidirectional conversion influences the transmission of the H marker; and (2) the mt − paternal mitochondrial genome is transmitted more often than the mt +. The mating type has no effect in diploids obtained by artificial fusion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: simulated moving bed technology ; chiral separation ; cellulose triacetate ; preparative scale liquid chromatography ; racemic epoxide ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The feasibility of using simulated moving bed technology (SMB) for chiral separation on cellulose triacetate is demonstrated on the preparative scale: 1 kg of a chiral epoxide has been separated. On comparing SMB technology with conventional liquid chromatography it turns out that the main advantage of SMB lies in the significant reduction of mobile phase consumption. The process design for SMB is made theoretically and the predictions are confirmed by our pilot study. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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