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  • Chloroplast DNA  (5)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (2)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 2 (1985), S. 263-267 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The small, relatively constant size and conservative evolution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) make it an ideal molecule for tracing the evolutionary history of plant species. At lower taxonomic levels, cpDNA variation is easily and conveniently assayed by comparing restriction patterns and maps, while at higher taxonomic levels, DNA sequencing and inversion analysis are the methods of choice for comparing chloroplast genomes. The study of cpDNA variation has already yielded important new insights into the origin and evolution of many agriculturally important crop plants, and promises to significantly enhance our phylogenetic understanding of the major lines of descent among land plants and algae.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    BioEssays 17 (1995), S. 1005-1008 
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The most common form of the CO2-fixing enzyme rubisco is a form I enzyme, heretofore found universally in oxygenic phototrophs (cyanobacteria and plastids) and widely in proteobacteria. Two groups(1-4), however, now report that in dinoflagellate plastids the usual form I rubisco has been replaced by the distantly related form II enzyme, known previously only from anaerobic proteobacteria. This raises the important question of how such an oxygensensitive rubisco could function in an aerobic organism. Moreover, the dinoflagellate rubisco has unusual molecular properties: it is encoded as a polyprotein, by nuclear (rather than plastid) genes, and these genes contain noncanonical spliceosomal introns. The nuclear location and alphaproteobacterial affinity of dinoflagellate rubisco genes hint at a possible mitochondrial origin and highlight the extraordinary richness of lateral gene transfers, both between and within organisms, that have occurred during rubisco evolution.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Chloroplast DNA ; Rearrangements ; Inversions ; Intron loss ; Homoplasy ; Ranunculaceae ; Anemone complex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chloroplast DNA cleavage sites for 10 restriction enzymes were mapped for 46 species representing all sections of Anemone, four closely related genera (Clematis, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia), and three more distantly related outgroups (Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis). Comparison of the maps revealed that the chloroplast genomes of Anemone and related genera have sustained an unusual number and variety of rearrangements. A single inversion of a 42-kb segment was found in the large single-copy region of Adonis aestivalis. Two types of rearrangements were found in the chloroplast genome of Clematis, Anemone, Pulsatilla, Hepatica, and Knowltonia: An approximately 4-kb expansion of the inverted repeat and four inversions within the large single-copy region. These rearrangements support the monophyletic status of these genera, clearly separating them from Caltha, Ranunculus, and Adonis. Two further inversions were found in two Clematis species and three Anemone species. While appearing to support a monophyletic grouping for these taxa, these two inversions conflict with data from both chloroplast restriction sites and morphology and are better interpreted as having occurred twice independently. These are the first two documented cases of homoplastic inversions in chloroplast DNA. Finally, the second intron of the chloroplast rps12 gene was shown to have been lost in the common ancestor of the same three Anemone species that feature the two homoplastic inversions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Restriction maps ; Gene organization ; Chloroplast DNA ; Inversion ; Asteraceae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have cloned into plasmids 17 of 18 lettuce chloroplast DNA SacI fragments covering 96% of the genome. The cloned fragments were used to construct cleavage maps for 10 restriction enzymes for the chloroplast genomes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Barnadesia caryophylla, two distantly related species in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Both genomes are approximately 151 kb in size and contain a 25 kb inverted repeat. We also mapped the position and orientation of 37 chloroplast DNA genes. The mapping studies reveal that chloroplast DNAs of lettuce and Barnadesia differ by a 22 kb inversion in the large single copy region. Barnadesia has retained the primitive land plant genome arrangement, while the inversion has occurred in a lettuce lineage. The endpoints of the derived lettuce inversion were located by comparison to the well-characterized spinach and tobacco genomes. Both endpoints are located in intergenic spacers within tRNA gene clusters; one cluster being located downstream from the atpA gene and the other upstream from the psbD gene. The endpoint near the atpA gene is very close to one endpoint of a 20 kb inversion in wheat (Howe et al. 1983; Quigley and Weil 1985). Comparison of the restriction site maps gives an estimated sequence divergence of 3.7% for the lettuce and Barnadesia genomes. This value is relatively low compared to previous estimates for other angiosperm groups, suggesting a high degree of sequence conservation in the Asteraceae.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Chlorophyll a/b-binding protein ; Chloroplast DNA ; Phytochrome (RNA levels) ; RNA levels, light ; Pisum (light and RNA) ; Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase ; Vigna
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have examined phytochrome effects on the abundance of transcripts from several nuclear and chloroplast genes in buds of dark-grown pea seedlings and primary leaves of dark-grown mung-bean seedlings. Probes for nuclear-coded RNAs were selected from a library of cDNA clones and included those corresponding to the small subunit (SS) of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase and a chlorophyll a/b binding protein (AB). Transcripts from chloroplast genes for RuBP carboxylase large subunit (LS) and a 32,000-dalton photosystem II polypeptide (PII) were assayed with cloned fragments of the chloroplast genome. In addition, we present data on transcripts from a number of other nuclear genes of unknown function, several of which change in abundance during light-induced development. Transcript levels were measured as a proportion of total RNA by a dot blot assay in which RNA from different tissues or stages is fixed to nitrocellulose and hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from cloned DNAs. Several patterns of induction can be seen. For example, although both SS and AB RNAs show positive, red/far-red reversible responses in both pea and mung bean, in pea buds the induction ratio for SS RNA is much higher than that for AB RNA, while just the reverse is true for mung-bean leaves. In addition, treatment with lowfluence red light produces full induction of the pea AB RNA, while SS RNA in the same tissue does not reach a maximum steady-state level until after about 24 h of supplementary high-intensity white light. In pea buds, chloroplast genes (LS, PII) also show clear responses to phytochrome, as measured by the steady-state levels of their RNA products. Chloroplast DNA levels (as a fraction of the total cellular DNA) show the same response pattern, which may indicate that in peas many of the light effects we see are related to a general stimulation of chloroplast development. In mung beans, the levels of plastid DNA and RNA are already quite high in the leaves of 7-d dark-grown seedlings, and light effects are much less pronounced. The results are consistent with the notion that chloroplast development is arrested at a later stage in dark-grown mung-bean leaves than in etiolated pea buds.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast DNA ; tRNA import ; Plastid gene translation ; Pseudogene ; Non-photosynthetic plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We recently reported that the gene for chloroplast tRNACys(GCA) is a pseudogene in the plastid DNA of Epifagus virginiana, a non-photosynthetic parastic flowering plant in the family Orobanchaceae. Since this is the only tRNACys gene in the plastid genome, and since Epifagus appears to possess a functional plastid translational apparatus, it seems probable that nuclear-encoded tRNAs are imported into plastids to effect translation. In this study we have surveyed species closely related to Epifagus to establish how widespread the loss of this tRNA gene has been. We find that Conopholis americana, another non-photosynthetic parasite, lacks the gene altogether, but that seven closely-related photosythetic plants (both parasitic and free-living) maintain an intact chloroplast tRNACys gene. Thus, the tRNACys gene appears to have become non-functional at the same time that photosynthetic ability was lost. This may be because the levels of putatively imported tRNAs are sufficient to meet the demands of plastid gene expression under nonphotosynthetic conditions only.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast DNA ; ORF2280 ; Multiple gene loss ; Deletion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the Pelargonium x hortorum ORF2280 homolog, the largest gene in the plastid genome of most land plants, and compared it to published homologs from Nicotiana tabacum, Epifagus virginiana, Spinacia oleracea, and Marchantia polymorpha. Multiple alignment of protein sequences requires an extraordinary number of gaps, indicating a very high frequency of insertion/deletion events during the evolution of the protein; however, the overall predicted size of the protein varies relatively little among the five species. At 2 109 codons, the Pelargonium gene is smaller than other land plant ORF2280 homologs and exhibits a rate of nucleotide substitution several times higher relative to Nicotiana, Epifagus, and Spinacia. Southern-blot and restriction-mapping studies were carried out to uncover length variation in ORF2280 homologs from 279 species (representing 111 families) of angiosperms. In many independent angiosperm lineages, this gene has sustained deletions ranging in size from 200 bp to almost 6 kb. Based on the severity of deletions, we postulate that the chloroplast homolog of ORF2280 has become nonfunctional in at least four independent lineages of angiosperms.
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