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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Transport kinetics ; Distribution ratio ; Driving forces ; Hydrophobicity plot ; Choline ; Acetylcholine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to study the characteristics of contraluminal organic cation transport from the blood site into proximal tubular cells the stopped-flow capillary perfusion method was applied. The disappearance of N 1-[3H]methylnicotinamide (NMeN+) and [3H]tetraethylammonium (TEA+) at different concentrations and contact times was measured and the following parameters evaluated: K m,NMeN = 0.54 mmol/l, J max,NMeN = 0.4 pmol s−1 cm−1; K m,TEA = 0.16 mmol/l, J max,TEA = 0.8 pmol s−1 cm−1. TEA+ inhibited NMeN+ transport and NMeN+ the uptake of TEA+. Thereby, the K i values for inhibition correspond closely to the K m values for uptake. Similar inhibitory potencies of ten organic cation against TEA+ and NMeN+ transport provide further evidence for a common transport system. Omission of HCO 3 − , or Na+ and addition of K+ (with or without Ba2+) reduce NMeN+ transport, while omission of K+ (with or without valinomycin) or addition of thiocyanate has no effect. Since the manoeuvres that depolarize contraluminal electrical potential difference reduce NMeN+ transport, cell-negative electrical potential difference is suggested as a driving force for contraluminal organic cation transport from the interstitium into the cell. Furthermore, the inhibitory potency (app. K i values) of homologous series of primary, secondary, tertiary and hydroxy amines as well as of mono- and bisquarternary ammonium compounds against NMeN+ transport was tested. The inhibitory potency increased in the sequence methyl 〈 ethyl 〈 propyl 〈 butyl and primary 〈 secondary 〈 tertiary amines 〈 quarternary ammonium compounds. With the amines a reversed correlation between K i,NMeN and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log octanol) is seen. With quarternary ammonium compounds the inhibitory potency decreases with increasing molecular size: tetrabutyl- 〉 tetrapentyl- 〉 tetrahexyl- 〉 tetraheptyl 〉 tetraoctylammonium. Introducing two OH groups into triethylamine reduces the inhibitory potency while introduction of two OH groups into diethylamine or three OH groups into triethylamine abolishes the inhibitory potency as a result of reduced hydrophobicity. With choline (trimethylethanolamine) and its analogues the reversed correlation between K i,NMeN and log octanol was also seen. Molecules with a similar hydrophobic moiety to those of the monoammonium compounds, but with two ammonium groups, showed only a small or no inhibitory potency against NMeN+ transport. The data indicate that (a) hydrophobic moieties are important for the interaction with the contraluminal organic cation transporter, and (b) the size of the molecule can be a limiting factor. The reduced or missing interaction of the bisquarternary compound might be caused either by the second charge and/or reduced hydrophobicity and/or too large size of a molecule.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: N-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) ; N 1-Methylnicotinamide ; Tetraethylammonium (TEA+) ; Choline ; Amiloride ; Cortisol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The efflux of radiolabelled organic cations from the tubular lumen into proximal tubular cells was investigated by using the stop-flow microperfusion method. The efflux rate increased in the sequence: N 1-methylnicotinamide (NMeN+) 〈 cimetidine 〈 tetraethylammonium (TEA+) 〈 N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Preloading the animals by i.v. infusion or pre perfusion of the peritubular capillaries with NMeN+ increased the efflux rate of MPP+. Luminal efflux was also augmented when the tubular solution was made alkaline with HCO 3 − or phosphate, whereby HCO 3 − is more effective than phosphate. Replacement of Na+ by Cs+ showed no effect. With i.v. preloading the animals with NMeN+ and with 25 mM HCO 3 − in the luminal perfusate the 2-s efflux follows kinetics with a Michaelis constant K m=0.21 mmol/l and maximal flux J max=0.42 pmol · cm−1 · s−1 and a permeability term with P=37.7 μm2 · s−1. Comparing the apparent luminal inhibitory constant values for MPP+ $$(Ki_{l,MPP^ + } )$$ with the apparent contraluminal $$Ki_{cl,NMeN^ + }$$ values of substrates of homologous series, it was found that (1) limitation by molecular size occurs at the contraluminal cell side earlier than at the luminal cell side; (2) affinity increases with hydrophobicity of the substrates at the luminal cell side, with a steeper or equal slope than at the contraluminal cell side; (3) affinity increases with basicity (i.e. pKa values) at the luminal cell side with a steeper slope than at the contraluminal cell side. Taken together, substrates with low hydrophobicity and low basicity interact at the luminal cell side more weakly than at the contraluminal cell side. On the other hand large, hydrophobic substrates have, at the luminal cell side, a higher affinity than at the contraluminal cell side. Many substrates, however, have equal affinity at the luminal and contraluminal cell sides.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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