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  • Circulation  (1)
  • pharmacokinetics
  • AC-ECD
  • Springer  (2)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers
  • 1990-1994  (2)
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (2)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers
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Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Proctolin ; Crustacean cardioactive peptide ; Cardiovascular ; Circulation ; Crab, Cancer magister
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Decapod crustacean pericardial organs contain extensive neurohormonal reserves which can be released directly into the haemolymph to act as physiological modulators. The present paper concerns the in vivo effects of two pericardial peptides, proctolin and crustacean cardioactive peptide, on cardiovascular dynamics in the crab Cancer magister. Infusion of proctolin into the pericardial sinus caused a slight decrease in heart rate concurrent with a large increase in cardiac stroke volume. It decreased haemolymph flow anteriorly through the paired anterolateral arteries and increased flow posteriorly and ventrally through the posterior aorta and sternal artery, respectively. The threshold for responses occurred at circulating concentrations of 10-9 mol·l-1, and haemolymph flows remained elevated for up to 30 min after peptide infusion. The effects of crustacean cardioactive peptide were less dramatic. Heart rate was not affected but a significant increase in stroke volume was observed. Crustacean cardioactive peptide increased haemolymph flow through the anterolateral arteries and increased scaphognathite rate. The threshold for crustacean cardioactive peptide activity was higher than for proctolin (10-7 mol·l-1 and 10-6 mol·l-1) but the responses to crustacean cardioactive peptide were of longer duration. The effects of proctolin on regional haemeolymph distribution in Cancer magister closely resemble the cardiovascular responses of this species when exposed to hypoxic conditions. These peptides may be implicated as cardiovascular regulators during environmental perturbations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Captopril ; sublingual ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study we compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of captopril after sublingual and peroral administration. Single 25 mg doses of captopril were administered sublingually and perorally on two different occasions in a randomised cross-over fashion to eight healthy volunteers aged 22–35 years. The kinetics of unchanged captopril, plasma renin activity (PRA), BP and heart rate were studied over three hours after both peroral and sublingual administration of captopril. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after sublingual administration were: Cmax, 234 ng·ml−1; tmax, 45 min; AUC (0–3 h), 15.1 μg·ml−1. min. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after peroral administration were: Cmax, 228 ng·ml−1; tmax, 75 min; AUC (0–3 h), 17.0 μg·ml−1. min. tmax was significantly shorter when captopril was administered sublingually; all other pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. The plasma captopril concentrations achieved post drug administration led to increases in PRA and reductions in BP. tmax for PRA was 86 min for sublingual captopril and 113 min for perorally administered drug. Peak PRA values were, however, not significantly different. BP, as expected, was not reduced dramatically in these healthy volunteer subjects, however, in systolic BP vs time profiles, BP was significantly lower after volunteers received sublingual captopril. Heart rate increased slightly after captopril administration; there were no differences between the two routes of administration. Administration of captopril sublingually, therefore led to a more rapid attainment of plasma captopril concentrations and had a more rapid onset of pharmacological effect when compared with peroral administration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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