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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Clonidine ; Learning ; Arousal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eight normal volunteers had IV infusions of 200 μg clonidine (a centrally-acting adrenergic agonist which reduces noradrenaline release), and saline in a “double-blind” cross-over design. Clonidine reduced subjective estimates of arousal but did not affect performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Clonidine impaired pairedassociate learning, but it did not affect performance on a number of measures of short and long term memory. The findings suggest either 1) that there is a specific (adrenergic) mechanism involved in the acquisition of novel associations, but not in other types of learning, or 2) that paired associate learning is more vulnerable than other learning tasks to disruption of adrenergic transmission.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Scopolamine ; Clonidine ; Learning ; Performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-eight subjects practised a task involving procedural knowledge in which a moving target has to be followed for two 3-min sessions. They were then randomly allocated to receive an IV injection of 0.4 mg scopolamine, 0.15 mg clonidine or saline. General impairment due to both active treatments was seen 20 min later in significantly decreased tracking performance. Subjects then had to learn a mirror-reversed version of the tracking task. This involved acquiring novel procedural knowledge. Subjects who had either saline or clonidine treatment showed rapid temporary improvements and also considerable permanent learning. Subjects treated with scopolamine, however, showed only slow temporary improvement and little permanent improvement in their performance at this task. This result suggests that a normally functioning cholinergic system is necessary not only for an efficient working memory but also for the long term acquisition of some kinds of procedural knowledge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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