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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Peptides ; Coexistence ; Nucleus tractussolitarii ; Ventral medulla ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The medulla oblongata and pons of colchicine treated rats were analyzed with a doublestaining technique using mouse monoclonal antibodies to somatostatin and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against methionine-enkephalin. Numerous cells reacted with both antisera but cells reacting with only one antiserum were also observed. Double-stained cells were most frequently encountered at all levels of the nucleus tractus solitarii, in a well defined group in the caudal medullary reticular formation, along the lateral ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, dorsolateral to the inferior olive and in the nucleus raphe magnus. These findings provide further examples of coexistence of two peptides and indicate the possibility that somatostatin-and enkephalin-like peptides are co-released.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Somatostatin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Coexistence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The caudal extension of the hypothalamic A13 dopamine cell group (A13c) was studied in the rat brain with immunohistochemical techniques using antibodies raised against the dopamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Adjacent sections revealed that the TH- and AADC-staining patterns exhibited a clear overlap with that for somatostatin (SOM). Employing a double-labelling method with SOM- and AADC-antisera and subsequent elution and restaining of the same section with TH-antiserum, it was found that all immunoreactivities occurred in the same cell bodies. This study gives the first evidence for the presence of SOM-immunoreactivity in dopamine neurons.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; Endosymbionts ; Microorganism ; Symbiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the endosymbionts of several populations of whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Consistent differences in morphology and relative number of endosymbionts were observed between species and biotypes of whitefly within the Bemisia taxon.Bemisia argentifolii (=B. tabaci B biotype) individuals from Hawaii, Florida, and Arizona contained two morphological types of microorganisms housed within the mycetocyte cells of immature whiteflies. In contrast, individuals from populations ofB. tabaci A biotype from Arizona and Mexico, andB. tabaci Jatropha biotype from Puerto Rico, consistently contained three distinct morphological types of microorganisms within their mycetocytes. Organisms fromB. tabaci A and Jatropha biotypes differed from each other in the relative frequency of each type of microorganism. These observations suggest that different whitefly biotypes may have variable combinations of micro-fauna, with some possibly unique to each group, and furthers the hypothesis that variation in whitefly endosymbionts may be associated with the development of biotypes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; cotton whitefly ; squash silverleaf disorder ; sweetpotato whitefly ; tobacco whitefly ; virus vector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Esterase profiles were examined for over 40 populations of the whitefly,Bemisia tabaci, obtained from native and cultivated plant hosts worldwide. Twelve unique electromorphs were identified from distinct populations concentrated largely in Central America, Africa, and India. One electromorph, type B, has recently been proposed as a separate species,Bemisia argentifolii, and has recently spread throughout much of the world. When considered with evidence from mating studies and the ability to induce phytotoxic disorders (squash silverleaf disorder), our data suggest that the single taxonBemisia tabaci may actually represent a species complex.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; cotton whitefly ; squash silverleaf disorder ; sweetpotato whitefly ; tobacco whitefly ; virus vector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Esterase profiles were examined for over 40 populations of the whitefly,Bemisia tabaci, obtained from native and cultivated plant hosts worldwide. Twelve unique electromorphs were identified from distinct populations concentrated largely in Central America, Africa, and India. One electromorph, type B, has recently been proposed as a separate species,Bemisia argentifolii, and has recently spread throughout much of the world. When considered with evidence from mating studies and the ability to induce phytotoxic disorders (squash silverleaf disorder), our data suggest that the single taxonBemisia tabaci may actually represent a species complex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Dorsal root ganglia ; Neuropeptides ; Coexistence ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary By use of the indirect immunofluorescence technique the distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) has been analyzed in cervical and lumbar dorsal root ganglia of untreated and colchicine-treated rats. In addition, lumbar ganglia were examined 2 weeks after transection of the sciatic nerve. The occurrence of CGRP-positive cells in relation to ganglion cells containing substance P-, somatostatin-, galanin-, cholecystokinin (CCK)-, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/peptide histidine isoleucin (PHI)-LI has been evaluated on consecutive sections as well as using elution-restaining and double-staining techniques. CGRP-LI was observed in many ganglion cells of all sizes ranging in diameter from 15 μm to 65 μm. Thus, this peptide occurs also in the large primary sensory neurons. In contrast to the sensory peptides described to date, CGRP-positive cells constituted up to 50% of all and 70% of the medium-sized neurons, thus being the most frequently occurring peptide in sensory neurons so far encountered. Subpulations of CGRP-positive neurons were shown to contain substance P-, somatostatin-, or galanin-LI and some CGRP-positive neurons contained both substance P- and galanin-LI. In fact, most substance P-, somatostatin- and galanin-positive cell bodies were CGRP-immunoreactive. The coexistence analysis further revealed that galanin and substance P often coexisted and that some cells contained both substance P- and somatostatin-LI, whereas no coexistence between galanin and somatostatin has as yet been seen. VIP/PHI-LI was only shown in a few cells in untreated or colchicine-treated rats. However, after transcetion of the sciatic nerve numerous VIP/PHI-positive cells were observed, some of which also contained CGRP-LI. The present results indicate that a CGRP-like peptide is present in a wide range of primary sensory neurons probably not related to specific sensory modalities. Often this peptide coexists with other biologically active peptides. Taken together these findings suggest that CGRP may have a generalized function.
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