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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; EXPOSURE ; LONG-TERM ; POPULATION ; RISK ; meningioma ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; COUNTRIES ; HEAD ; case-control study ; GLIOMA ; methods ; pooled analysis ; INCREASED RISK ; CANCER-RISK ; INTERNATIONAL CASE-CONTROL ; brain tumours ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; mobile phones ; SELECTION BIAS ; PHONE USE ; CELLULAR TELEPHONES ; NONDIFFERENTIAL MISCLASSIFICATION ; radiofrequency fields
    Abstract: Methods An interview-based case-control study with 2708 glioma and 2409 meningioma cases and matched controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Results A reduced odds ratio (OR) related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user was seen for glioma [OR 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.94] and meningioma (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.91), possibly reflecting participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR was observed 〉= 10 years after first phone use (glioma: OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.76-1.26; meningioma: OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.61-1.14). ORs were 〈 1.0 for all deciles of lifetime number of phone calls and nine deciles of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile of recalled cumulative call time, 〉= 1640 h, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.03-1.89) for glioma, and 1.15 (95% CI 0.81-1.62) for meningioma; but there are implausible values of reported use in this group. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in the temporal lobe than in other lobes of the brain, but the CIs around the lobe-specific estimates were wide. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than on the opposite side. Conclusions Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20483835
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; COMMON ; INFORMATION ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; RISKS ; meningioma ; TISSUE ; IMPACT ; RISK-FACTORS ; TISSUES ; tumour ; FREQUENCY ; FIELD ; FREQUENCIES ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; risk factors ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; FRANCE ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; study design ; AUSTRALIA ; FINLAND ; case control study ; case-control study ; RE ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; INCREASE ; GLIOMA ; RECALL ; GLAND ; case control studies ; methods ; CELLULAR-TELEPHONE USE ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; E ; carcinogenic ; INCREASES ; case control ; acoustic neuroma ; brain tumours ; mobile phone ; MOBILE PHONE USE ; SETUP ; acoustic neurinoma ; benign tumours ; case-control ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; FIELDS ; mobile phones ; parotid gland tumours ; SELECTION BIAS
    Abstract: The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17636416
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISKS ; HEALTH ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; RECALL ; brain tumour ; vestibular schwannoma ; CANCER-RISK ; acoustic neuroma ; CORDLESS TELEPHONES ; mobile phones ; SELECTION BIAS ; PHONE USE ; CELLULAR TELEPHONES ; LOUD NOISE ; Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields
    Abstract: Background: The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from these devices. Methods: A case-control study of 1105 patients with newly diagnosed acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) and 2145 controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Past mobile phone use was assessed by personal interview. In the primary analysis, exposure time was censored at one year before the reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and date of diagnosis of the matched case for controls); analyses censoring exposure at five years before the reference date were also done to allow for a possible longer latent period. Results: The odds ratio (OR) of acoustic neuroma with ever having been a regular mobile phone user was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.04). The OR for 〉= 10 years after first regular mobile phone use was 0.76 (0.52-1.11). There was no trend of increasing ORs with increasing cumulative call time or cumulative number of calls, with the lowest OR (0.48 (0.30-0.78)) observed in the 9th decile of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile (〉= 1640 h) of cumulative call time, the OR was 1.32 (0.88-1.97); there were, however, implausible values of reported use in those with 〉= 1640 h of accumulated mobile phone use. With censoring at 5 years before the reference date the OR for 〉= 10 years after first regular mobile phone use was 0.83 (0.58-1.19) and for 〉= 1640 h of cumulative call time it was 2.79(1.51-5.16). but again with no trend in the lower nine deciles and with the lowest OR in the 9th decile. In general, ORs were not greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than in those who reported it on the opposite side, but it was greater in those in the 10th decile of cumulative hours of use. Conclusions: There was no increase in risk of acoustic neuroma with ever regular use of a mobile phone or for users who began regular use 10 years or more before the reference date. Elevated odds ratios observed at the highest level of cumulative call time could be due to chance, reporting bias or a causal effect. As acoustic neuroma is usually a slowly growing tumour, the interval between introduction of mobile phones and occurrence of the tumour might have been too short to observe an effect, if there is one.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21862434
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Peptides ; Coexistence ; Nucleus tractussolitarii ; Ventral medulla ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The medulla oblongata and pons of colchicine treated rats were analyzed with a doublestaining technique using mouse monoclonal antibodies to somatostatin and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against methionine-enkephalin. Numerous cells reacted with both antisera but cells reacting with only one antiserum were also observed. Double-stained cells were most frequently encountered at all levels of the nucleus tractus solitarii, in a well defined group in the caudal medullary reticular formation, along the lateral ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, dorsolateral to the inferior olive and in the nucleus raphe magnus. These findings provide further examples of coexistence of two peptides and indicate the possibility that somatostatin-and enkephalin-like peptides are co-released.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Somatostatin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Coexistence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The caudal extension of the hypothalamic A13 dopamine cell group (A13c) was studied in the rat brain with immunohistochemical techniques using antibodies raised against the dopamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Adjacent sections revealed that the TH- and AADC-staining patterns exhibited a clear overlap with that for somatostatin (SOM). Employing a double-labelling method with SOM- and AADC-antisera and subsequent elution and restaining of the same section with TH-antiserum, it was found that all immunoreactivities occurred in the same cell bodies. This study gives the first evidence for the presence of SOM-immunoreactivity in dopamine neurons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Dorsal root ganglia ; Neuropeptides ; Coexistence ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary By use of the indirect immunofluorescence technique the distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) has been analyzed in cervical and lumbar dorsal root ganglia of untreated and colchicine-treated rats. In addition, lumbar ganglia were examined 2 weeks after transection of the sciatic nerve. The occurrence of CGRP-positive cells in relation to ganglion cells containing substance P-, somatostatin-, galanin-, cholecystokinin (CCK)-, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/peptide histidine isoleucin (PHI)-LI has been evaluated on consecutive sections as well as using elution-restaining and double-staining techniques. CGRP-LI was observed in many ganglion cells of all sizes ranging in diameter from 15 μm to 65 μm. Thus, this peptide occurs also in the large primary sensory neurons. In contrast to the sensory peptides described to date, CGRP-positive cells constituted up to 50% of all and 70% of the medium-sized neurons, thus being the most frequently occurring peptide in sensory neurons so far encountered. Subpulations of CGRP-positive neurons were shown to contain substance P-, somatostatin-, or galanin-LI and some CGRP-positive neurons contained both substance P- and galanin-LI. In fact, most substance P-, somatostatin- and galanin-positive cell bodies were CGRP-immunoreactive. The coexistence analysis further revealed that galanin and substance P often coexisted and that some cells contained both substance P- and somatostatin-LI, whereas no coexistence between galanin and somatostatin has as yet been seen. VIP/PHI-LI was only shown in a few cells in untreated or colchicine-treated rats. However, after transcetion of the sciatic nerve numerous VIP/PHI-positive cells were observed, some of which also contained CGRP-LI. The present results indicate that a CGRP-like peptide is present in a wide range of primary sensory neurons probably not related to specific sensory modalities. Often this peptide coexists with other biologically active peptides. Taken together these findings suggest that CGRP may have a generalized function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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