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  • Articles  (15)
  • Motor control  (5)
  • Angiotensin II  (4)
  • Bemisia argentifolii  (3)
  • Coexistence  (3)
  • COMMON VARIANTS
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Peptides ; Coexistence ; Nucleus tractussolitarii ; Ventral medulla ; Immunohistochemistry ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The medulla oblongata and pons of colchicine treated rats were analyzed with a doublestaining technique using mouse monoclonal antibodies to somatostatin and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against methionine-enkephalin. Numerous cells reacted with both antisera but cells reacting with only one antiserum were also observed. Double-stained cells were most frequently encountered at all levels of the nucleus tractus solitarii, in a well defined group in the caudal medullary reticular formation, along the lateral ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, dorsolateral to the inferior olive and in the nucleus raphe magnus. These findings provide further examples of coexistence of two peptides and indicate the possibility that somatostatin-and enkephalin-like peptides are co-released.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Somatostatin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Coexistence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The caudal extension of the hypothalamic A13 dopamine cell group (A13c) was studied in the rat brain with immunohistochemical techniques using antibodies raised against the dopamine synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). Adjacent sections revealed that the TH- and AADC-staining patterns exhibited a clear overlap with that for somatostatin (SOM). Employing a double-labelling method with SOM- and AADC-antisera and subsequent elution and restaining of the same section with TH-antiserum, it was found that all immunoreactivities occurred in the same cell bodies. This study gives the first evidence for the presence of SOM-immunoreactivity in dopamine neurons.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Angiotensin II ; Autoradiography ; Seawater-adaptation ; trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (= Salmogairdneri)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tissue slices from seawater-adapted and freshwater-adapted rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed to 125I-angiotensin II (1.01·10-9 M) and binding sites located by light-microscopic autoradiography. Binding/uptake was significantly inhibited by excess (10-5 M) unlabelled angiotensin II, suggesting specific binding/uptake of angiotensin II to the ventral and dorsal aorta (smooth muscle), urinary bladder (smooth muscle and epithelial lining), glomeruli and proximal tubules, the gill (lamellae and central filament), skin (epithelium), intestine and oesophagus (mucosal epithelium), liver, heart (ventricular myocytes), adrenocortical tissue and brain (cerebellum and medulla oblongata). The specific binding/uptake of angiotensin II to tissues of freshwater- and seawater-adapted animals were generally similar. However, binding/uptake by the proximal tubules was significantly higher in freshwater-adapted trout than seawater-adapted trout. Specific binding/uptake of angiotensin II by the smooth muscle of the bladder was significantly higher in trout adapted to seawater than trout adapted to freshwater.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; Endosymbionts ; Microorganism ; Symbiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the endosymbionts of several populations of whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Consistent differences in morphology and relative number of endosymbionts were observed between species and biotypes of whitefly within the Bemisia taxon.Bemisia argentifolii (=B. tabaci B biotype) individuals from Hawaii, Florida, and Arizona contained two morphological types of microorganisms housed within the mycetocyte cells of immature whiteflies. In contrast, individuals from populations ofB. tabaci A biotype from Arizona and Mexico, andB. tabaci Jatropha biotype from Puerto Rico, consistently contained three distinct morphological types of microorganisms within their mycetocytes. Organisms fromB. tabaci A and Jatropha biotypes differed from each other in the relative frequency of each type of microorganism. These observations suggest that different whitefly biotypes may have variable combinations of micro-fauna, with some possibly unique to each group, and furthers the hypothesis that variation in whitefly endosymbionts may be associated with the development of biotypes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; cotton whitefly ; squash silverleaf disorder ; sweetpotato whitefly ; tobacco whitefly ; virus vector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Esterase profiles were examined for over 40 populations of the whitefly,Bemisia tabaci, obtained from native and cultivated plant hosts worldwide. Twelve unique electromorphs were identified from distinct populations concentrated largely in Central America, Africa, and India. One electromorph, type B, has recently been proposed as a separate species,Bemisia argentifolii, and has recently spread throughout much of the world. When considered with evidence from mating studies and the ability to induce phytotoxic disorders (squash silverleaf disorder), our data suggest that the single taxonBemisia tabaci may actually represent a species complex.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: Bemisia tabaci ; Bemisia argentifolii ; cotton whitefly ; squash silverleaf disorder ; sweetpotato whitefly ; tobacco whitefly ; virus vector
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Esterase profiles were examined for over 40 populations of the whitefly,Bemisia tabaci, obtained from native and cultivated plant hosts worldwide. Twelve unique electromorphs were identified from distinct populations concentrated largely in Central America, Africa, and India. One electromorph, type B, has recently been proposed as a separate species,Bemisia argentifolii, and has recently spread throughout much of the world. When considered with evidence from mating studies and the ability to induce phytotoxic disorders (squash silverleaf disorder), our data suggest that the single taxonBemisia tabaci may actually represent a species complex.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Angiotensin II ; Glomerulus ; Salmo gairdneri ; Seawater-adaptation ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of angiotensin infusion on the glomerular ultrastructure of freshwater- and seawater-adapted rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, has been examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Adaptation of trout to seawater resulted in epithelial podocyte flattening, primary process broadening and apparent loss of foot processes in almost all glomeruli, features which were uncommon in freshwater-adapted trout. Similar changes were induced by infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the modification of glomerular epithelial ultrastructure. Adaptation of trout to seawater also reduced glomerular diameter, but infusion of freshwater-adapted animals with angiotensin did not mirror this effect. Infusion of angiotensin into seawater-adapted animals increased the overall thickness of glomerular basement membrane by increasing the lamina rara interna and lamina densa. This did not occur when freshwater-adapted fish were either infused with angiotensin or adapted to seawater. These findings suggest that other humoral systems are involved in the control of glomerular diameter and basement membrane thickness as part of an integrated response to increased environmental salinity.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Glomerulus ; Angiotensin II ; Glomerular ultrastructure ; Seawater adaptation ; Salmo gairdneri (Teleostei)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Slices from the kidneys of the rainbow trout which were exposed to 10-6 or 10-5 M angiotensin II (AII) and isolated glomeruli exposed to 10-7 or 10-5 M AII showed ultrastructural changes compared to control tissues incubated without AII. The studies indicate that angiotensin II has a direct action on glomerular ultrastructure, flattening the epithelial podocytes and broadening the primary processes with fusion of pedicels in extreme cases. These changes suggest a probable effect of AII on water permeability of the trout glomerulus, an intrarenal action which is believed to form an essential part of the antidiuretic adaptation to increased environmental salinities.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Motor control ; Motor skill ; Electromyography ; Inaccuracy ; Isometric
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The aim of this study was to investigate the electromyographical basis of inaccurate movement by identifying the variate and invariate characteristics of a ballistic, isometric precision-grip skill. Our results have shown that in most subjects investigated, IEMG, discharge rate and the paterns of muscle synergy were variate movement parameters while the sequence of muscle activation, the relative duration of muscle activity and the time to peak force (rise-time) remained essentially invariante. Based on these results, we can conclude that inaccurate performance of this skill, in most of the subjects investigated, was more dependant upon changes in muscle IEMG than in alterations in the temporal sequencing of muscle activity. It was apparent that from trial to trial, subjects had more difficulty in reproducing the appropriate levels of muscle contraction and synergy than in reproducing the required periods of action.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Motor control ; Electromyography ; Motor skill ; Triphasic electromyogram ; Muscle contraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this investigation was to determine how the triphasic electromyogram (EMG) pattern of muscle activation developed from the agonist muscle only pattern as movement time (t mov) decreased. Six adult women produced a series of 30° elbow extension movements in the horizontal plane at speeds ranging from ballistic (〈 400-ms t mov) to very slow (〉 800-ms t mov). Surface EMG from triceps brachii (agonist) and biceps brachii (antagonist) muscles were recorded, together with elbow angle, on a microcomputer. The results showed that triphasic EMG patterns developed systematically as t mov decreased from 1000 ms to 〈 200 ms. In trials with very long t mov, many elbow extension movements were produced by a single continuous activation of the agonist triceps brachii muscle. As t mov decreased however, agonist activation became predominantly burst-like and other components of the triphasic EMG pattern [activation of the antagonist (Ant) and second agonist activation (Ag2)] began to appear. At the fastest movement speeds, triphasic EMG patterns (Ag1-Ant-Ag2, Ag1 being first activation of agonist muscle) were always present. This data indicated that the triphasic pattern of muscle activation was not switched on when a particular t mov was achieved. Rather, each component systematically developed until all were present, as distinctive bursts of activity, in most trials with t mov less than 400 ms.
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