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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Long latency reflexes ; Electromyographic activity ; Wrist muscles ; Humans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Reflex EMG responses to angular displacements of the wrist joint were recorded from 12 normal human volunteers. A mechanical stop was used to suddenly arrest displacements at varying times following the onset of the stimulus. With unrestricted movement of the handle, the EMG response consisted of an early component (M1) with a latency of 30–35 ms and a long-latency component (M2–3) beginning 55–65 ms after the onset of the displacement. When the displacements were arrested prior to a critical time occurring between 40 and 50 ms after the onset (mean of 44 ms), the M2–3 component of the response was not present. Increasing the duration of the displacement beyond this time resulted in a rapid increase in the size of M2–3. Facilitation provided by volitional intent to oppose the perturbation was not sufficient to generate an M2–3 response to either a brief, low velocity displacement produced by the torque motor or to a phasic, high velocity stretch produced by a tendon tap. The timing relationships between the onset latency of M2 and the minimum duration of displacement required to generate an M2–3 response are not easily reconciled with the notion that the segmentation of the EMG responses into components is mediated by repeated activation of the same central reflex pathway by phasic afferent bursts. Two mechanisms that could account for these results are either inhibition in response to the sudden stop of phasically-active “linking” interneurons which are part of the long latency pathway, or the loss of an essential convergent facilitatory input which serves to monitor the continuation of the movement.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of chemical ecology 8 (1982), S. 1399-1409 
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; Dendroctonus ponderosae ; pheromone ; frontalin ; exo-brevicomin ; Pinns contorta ; Pinus ponderosa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Frontalin andexo-brevicomin were identified by GC-MS in air drawn over maleDendroclonus ponderosae Hopk. (MPB) from Oregon that had joined females for 1–2 days in the bark of lodgepole and ponderosa pine logs. Unfed males releasedexo- andendo-brevicomin but not frontalin. These three compounds were not detected in either unfed or fed females. Arrestment of males bytrans-verbenol and terpenes in an olfactory walkway was reduced by the addition of racemic frontalin; production of attractant chirps also diminished. Racemic frontalin also strongly reduced the aggregation of MPB in lodgepole and ponderosa pine stands to sticky traps baited with the aggregation pheromonetrans-verbenol and host terpenes; however, the function of the natural enantiomer of frontalin in MPB is unknown.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; Dendroctonus ponderosae ; pheromone ; exo-brevicomin ; endo-brevicomin ; Pinus contorta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Bothexo- andendo-brevicomin reduced the response of flyingDendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to an attractant composed oftrans-verbenol and terpenes or oftrans- andcis-verbenol and terpenes in a stand ofPinus contorta var.murrayana. These data suggest that racemicexo- andendo-brevicomin may interrupt aggregation in populations of mountain pine beetle colonizing lodgepole pine; functions of the natural chiral compounds are unknown.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; Dendroctonus pseudotsugae ; pheromone ; multifunctionality ; 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-l-one ; diluent ; dibutyl phthalate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Previous field and laboratory tests withDendroctonus pseudotsugae showing increased attractancy and chirp evocation by very low concentrations of the pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (3,2-MCH) dissolved in ethanol with known attractants were repeated with a different diluent, dibutyl phthalate (DBP). Other workers had speculated that the solvent ethanol was actually the synergist. Beetle response was essentially identical with both solvents, confirming the concentration-dependent multifunctionality of 3,2-MCH in Douglas-fir beetle behavior. Contradictions in available data with ethanol indicate unanswered questions about its effect withDendroctonus attractants.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Aggregation pheromone ; attractant ; 1-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol ; Dendroctonus pseudotsugae ; Coleoptera ; Scolytidae ; bark beetle ; Douglas-fir beetle ; 3-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol ; Pseudotsuga menziesii
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract 1-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-ol (1,2-MCH-ol) was synthesized, identified as a compound found in volatiles of the female Douglas-fir beetle, and shown by bioassays to be an aggregation pheromone. 1,2-MCH-ol matches in both GC retention index and mass spectrum a compound released by the female after feeding. 3,3-MCH-ol was also synthesized as a candidate compound; its mass spectrum is presented because published mass spectra are incorrect for this compound. Synthetic 1,2-MCH-ol increased arrestment and stridulation of males in olfactory walkways and increased trap catches of flying beetles. Males were more responsive to 1,2-MCH-ol than females.
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