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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: clozapine ; schizophrenics ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The clinical pharmacokinetics of clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, was evaluated in 10 chronic schizophrenic male patients after intravenous and oral administration. The mean equilibrium-state concentration ratio between blood and plasma was experimentally determined to be 0.87. The average values for blood clearance, hepatic extraction ratio and oral bioavailability were 250 ml/min, 0.2 and 0.27, respectively. Plasma concentration peaked on average at 3 h. The mean volume of distribution at steady-state and the terminal half-life was 1.6 l/kg and 10.3 h, respectively. A large fraction of the dose is most probably metabolized by some extrahepatic presystemic routes. The large inter-individual variability in the bioavailability and clearance is probably the main reason for large variation in the steady-state plasma level in patients receiving the same oral dosage regimen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Solid phase extraction ; Tetracycline in serum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A simple and rugged SPE method for the determination of tetracycline (TC), minocycline (MC) and demeclocycline (DCC) in porcine serum by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The spiked serum sample was pretreated with 2% phosphoric acid followed by a simple and rugged solid-phase extraction procedure using the OasisTM HLB extraction cartridges. High and reproducible recoveries were obtained even though the cartridges were run dry. The extracted sample analytes were injected onto a Waters SymmetryShieldTM RP8 column. The mobile phase was a simple volatile solution containing 0.1% TFA, 2% methanol and 7% acetonitrile in Water. The antibiotics were detected at 350 nm. The calibration curves were linear from 2.0 to 25.0 μg mL−1 of TC and MC with DCC as the internal standard at a concentration of 25.0 μg mL−1. For six replicate analyses, the average recoveries of TC and MC from porcine serum sample fortified at the level of 2.5 μg mL−1 were 96.1% with 1.3% RSD and 101% with 0.54% RSD; at level of 0.5 μg mL−1 the average recoveries were 88% with 1.6% RSD and 97.8% with 1.4% RSD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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