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  • Animal model  (1)
  • Continuous hemodiafiltration  (1)
  • Springer  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-7799
    Keywords: Key words Adenine ; Animal model ; Chronic renal failure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. A renal failure model prepared from rats fed on an adenine diet provides valuable information about the pathomechanism of various complications associated with a persistent uremic state. To establish an animal experimental model in which the animals survive in a persistent uremic state, it is essential to settle a point of no return, i.e., an irreversible point. We investigated an irreversible point using the rat renal failure model induced by adenine treatment. Methods. Rats were fed on a diet containing 0.75% adenine for 2, 4, or 6 weeks, and they were then fed an adenine-free diet for an additional 4 weeks to evaluate the degree of recovery from renal dysfunction. Results. The rats fed on the adenine diet for 2 weeks showed a decrease in mean serum creatinine(s-Cr) from 1.8 mg/dl before to 0.7 mg/dl after the observation period, with mild anemia. The rats fed on the adenine diet for 4 weeks showed persistent renal dysfunction. Although the mean s-Cr decreased from 2.7 to 2.0 mg/dl, it continued to be higher than the normal range, and the anemia worsened. In the rats fed on the adenine diet for 6 weeks, the mean s-Cr increased from 3.4 to 3.6 mg/dl. Hypoproteinemia was also observed and some animals died. Conclusion. Based on the above results, it was concluded that to prepare a model of chronic renal failure in rats compatible to chronic renal failure seen clinically, the administration of a 0.75% adenine diet for 4 weeks is most appropriate.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-7799
    Keywords: Key words Vancomycin ; Multiple organ failure ; Continuous hemodiafiltration ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background. Some pharmacokinetic data for vancomycin (VCM) during continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration have been reported, but reports on the effect of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), which is more commonly performed in patients with multiple organ failure (MOF), on VCM pharmacokinetics are scanty. Method. We selected five patients with MOF with serious infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus who needed treatment with VCM during CVVHDF. Blood flow rate was 80 ml/min, and dialysis fluid flow rate and filtration flow rate were both 0.5 l/h. A hemofilter made of polysulfon was used. After administration of 0.5–1.0 g of VCM, serial samples of blood and dialysate/filtrate outflow were obtained during CVVHDF. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by a standard model-independent method. Results. Mean ± SE values for the pharmacokinetic parameters of VCM were: elimination rate constant, 0.0369 ± 0.0124/h; systemic clearance, 25.6 ± 5.0 ml/min; CVVHDF clearance, 15.9 ± 3.4 ml/min; non-CVVHDF clearance, 9.6 ± 8.4 ml/min; and distribution volume, 51.1 ± 21.6 l. The harmonic mean of half-life was 18.9 h. Conclusion. The systemic clearance of VCM during CVVHDF was relatively higher than anticipated. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in the present study will be useful to optimize the dose schedule of VCM in patients with MOF being treated with CVVHDF.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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