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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Coryneform Hydrogen Bacterium ; Autotrophic Growth ; Entner-Doudoroff Pathway ; Hydrogenase ; Slime Formation ; Corynebacterium autotrophicum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. Corynebacterium autotrophicum strain 7 C was isolated from an enrichment culture designed for propane oxidizing bacteria. The cells are Grampositive, immotile, short, irregularly formed rods. The colonies are yellow-pigmented and slimy. The yellow pigmentation is due to carotenoids. 2. Growth occurs either autotrophically in mineral medium under an atmosphere of 70% H2+20% O2+10% CO2 or heterotrophically with fructose or many organic acids as substrates. 3. The hexoses and gluconate are degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is not detectable. 4. A NAD reducing hydrogenase has not been detected; the hydrogenase is localized in the particle fraction of the crude extract and reduces methylene blue. The specific activity of hydrogenase in the crude extract of autotrophically grown cells is 2400 μl H2/mg protein · hr. During growth on fructose the enzyme is constitutively formed (1200 μl H2/mg protein · hr). 5. The utilization of fructose was suppressed by hydrogen. The inhibitory effect was significant, when either fully adapted or autotrophically grown cells were exposed to a hydrogen containing atmosphere.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Nitrogen fixation ; Aerobic hydrogen bacteria ; Oxygen sensitivity ; Efficiency ; Aerobic and anaerobic acetylene reduction ; Corynebacterium autotrophicum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The coryneform hydrogen bacterium strain GZ 29, assigned to Corynebacterium autotrophicum fixed molecular nitrogen under autotrophic (H2, CO2) as well as under heterotrophic (sucrose) conditions. Physiological parameters of nitrogen fixation were measured under heterotrophic conditions. The optimal dissolved oxygen concentration for cells grown in a fermenter with N2 was rather low (0.14 mg O2/l) compared with cells grown in the presence of NH 4 + (4.45 mg O2/l). C. autotrophicum GZ 29 had a doubling time of 3.7 h at 30°C with N2 as N-source and sucrose as carbon source and at optimal pO2. Acetylene reduction reached values of 12 nmoles of ethylene produced/minxmg protein. Although the oxygen concentration in the growing culture was kept constant, the optimal dissolved oxygen tension for the acetylene reduction assay shifted to higher pO2-values. The overall efficiency of nitrogen fixation amounted to 22 mg N fixed/g sucrose consumed; it reached a maximal value of 65 mg N fixed/g sucrose consumed at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. Intact cells reduced acetylene even under anaerobic test conditions; further anaerobic metabolic activity could not be ascertained so far.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: R-Bodies ; Kappa particles ; Free-living hydrogen bacteria ; Induction ; Electron microscopy ; Chemical composition ; Defective prophages ; Plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract R-Bodies have been found in a recently isolated pseudomonas-like free-living hydrogen oxidizing bacterium. Their isolation, fine structure and chemical composition are described and compared with the R-bodies from the kappa particles (Caedobacter), obligate endosymbionts of Paramecium aurelia. The 2K 1 R-bodies exhibited essential characteristics of the kappa R-bodies; however, their size and some other structural aspects proved that they represent a new type of R-bodies. The presence of phage tail-like particles in cells induced with Mitomycin C is in favour of the hypothesis that the R-bodies might be coded by defective prophages, or by extrachromosomal elements.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Coryneform Hydrogen Bacteria ; Taxonomical Classification ; Corynebacterium autotrophicum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Recently isolated coryneform hydrogen bacteria were investigated under taxonomical aspects. Strains 7 C, RH 10, and 14 g are characterized by the snapping type of cell division, 68.5 to 69.7% GC content, dl-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, content of metachromatic granules, weak utilization of sugars and inhibitory effect of citrate. The strains are placed to the group 1—genus Corynebacterium—of the classification of coryneform bacteria of Yamada and Komagata (1972) and the name Corynebacterium autotrophicum sp.nov. is proposed. Strains 11 X and RH 12 are characterized by the bending type of cell division, a GC content of 70.2 and 70.5%, ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, absence of metachromatic granules, utilization of several sugars and no changes in cell morphology by citrate. The strains have to be placed to group 6 of coryneform bacteria.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 107 (1976), S. 139-142 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Hydrogen bacteria ; Corynebacterium autotrophicum ; N2-Fixation ; 15N2-Incorporation ; Specific enrichment culture ; Acetylene reduction ; Coryneform bacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An enrichment method for nitrogen fixing hydrogen bacteria is described. The procedure invariably resulted in the isolation of yellow-pigmented coryneform bacterial strains assigned to Corynebacterium autotrophicum. The procedure included a serial transfer in an ammonium-free mineral liquid medium under an atmosphere of 10% hydrogen, 5% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide and 75% nitrogen, followed by a short alkali treatment and by streaking on nutrient broth-succinate agar. The ability to fix nitrogen was confirmed by the acetylene reduction test and by 15N2 incorporation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aquaspirillum autotrophicum ; Hydrogen bacterium ; Growth ; Chemolithoautotrophy ; Particulate hydrogenase ; Induction ; Repression ; Natural habitats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Aquaspirillum autrotrophicum, an aerobic hydrogen bacterium recently isolated from an eutrophic freshwater lake, was characterized physiologically. It grew autotrophically in a fermenter with a doubling time of 4 h. Heterotrophic growth was faster. pH-Optimum ranged from 5.0–7.5, temperature optimum was about 28° C. During autotrophic growth about 10 moles hydrogen were consumed per 1 mole carbon dioxide fixed. Hydrogenase activity is inducible. CO2 did not enhance the oxy-hydrogen reaction by intact cells. The hydrogenase activity was localized in the particulate fraction. The hydrogenase reduced methylene blue and phenazine methosulfate; pyridine nucleotides were not reduced. In cell-free extracts, hydrogenase was sensitive to oxygen. Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was present in autotrophically-grown cells and absent from heterotrophically grown cells. Hydrogenase induction in heterotrophically-grown cells followed parabolic kinetics. Oxygen and D-gluconate repressed hydrogenase synthesis, whereas citrate, DL-lactate and pyruvate stimulated its formation. The repressive effect was delayed. The results suggest that the control of hydrogenase synthesis occurred at the transcriptional level, and that mRNA coding for the hydrogenase had a relatively long life span. D-Gluconate was degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the enzymes of which were constitutively formed. Enzymes of the pentosephosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathways (except phosphofructokinase) were present, too. Hydrogen did not inhibit heterotrophic growth. The possible competitive advantage of the physiological properties described with regard to the natural habitat was discussed.
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