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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Key words Milk composition ; Lactation ; Calcium ; Bats ; Phyllostomatidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Growth rates of mammalian young are closely linked to the ability of the mother to provide nutrients; thus, milk composition and yield provide a direct measure of maternal investment during lactation in many mammals. We studied changes in milk composition and output throughout lactation in a free-ranging population of the omnivorous bat, Phyllostomus hastatus. Fat and dry matter of milk increased from 9 to 21% and from 21 to 35% of wet mass, respectively, throughout lactation. Energy increased from 6 to 9 kJ · g−1 wet mass, primarily due to the increase in fat concentration. Total sugar levels decreased slightly but non-significantly. Mean sugar level was 4.0% of wet mass. Protein concentration increased from 6 to 11% of wet mass at peak lactation and then decreased as pups approached weaning age. Total milk energy output until pups began to forage was 3609 kJ. Milk levels of Mg, Fe, Ca, K, and Na averaged 0.55 ± 0.26, 0.23 ± 0.2, 8.75 ± 4.17, 5.42 ± 2.11, and 9.87 ± 4.3 mg · g−1 dry matter, respectively. Of the minerals studied, calcium appears to be most limiting in this species. The high degree of variability in foraging time, milk composition and milk yield between individuals at the same stage of lactation could potentially yield high variance in reproductive success among females of this polygynous species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0197-8462
    Keywords: Coturnix quail ; hatchability ; growth ; microwaves (2.45 GHz, CW) ; solar power ; satellite ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Occupational Health and Environmental Toxicology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Fertile eggs of the Coturnix quail were exposed twice a day for 30 min to 2.45-GHz continuous wave radiation at power densities of 25 or 50 mW cm-2 throughout the 17-day incubation period. Other eggs were exposed to 20°C or 24°C temperatures twice daily. Repeated exposures to 20°C, 24°C, or 25 mW cm-2 did not reduce hatchability. Irradiation at 50 mW cm-2 lowered hatchability, probably as a result of high egg temperatures. Hatchlings that had been irradiated by microwaves as embryos had normal growth rates and no obvious developmental abnormalities.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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