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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Ammonium transport ; Anabaena ; Cycad-cyanobacterium symbiosis ; Cyanobacterium ; Cycas ; Methylammonium transport ; Symbiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Using the ammonium analogue 14CH3NH 3 + , ammonium transport was studied in the cyanobiont cells freshly isolated from the root nodules of Cycas revoluta. An L-methionine-dl-sulphoximine (MSX)-insensitive ammonium-transport system, which was dependent on membrane potential (ΔΨ), was found in the cyanobiont. However, the cyanobiont was incapable of metabolizing exogenous 14CH3NH 3 + or NH 4 + because of the absence of another ammonium-transport system responsible for the uptake of ammonium for assimilation via glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2). Such a modification seems to be the result of symbiosis because the free-living cultured isolate, Anabaena cycadeae, has been shown to possess both the ammonium-transport systems.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Planta 188 (1992), S. 403-413 
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Cyanobacterium ; Gunnera ; Infection process ; Nostoc ; Symbiosis ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The symbiosis between Gunnera and Nostoc was reconstituted using G. chilensis Lam. and G. manicata Linden, respectively, and three different Nostoc strains. Six stages characterised by specific modifications in both the cyanobiont and the host were recognised during the infection process. Mucilage-secreting stem glands developed on the Gunnera stems independent of the presence of cyanobacteria (Stage I). Soon after addition of the Nostoc isolates to the plant apices, an abundant differentiation of motile hormogonia commenced. The cyanobacteria accumulated in the mucilage on the surface of the gland (Stage II), and the hormogonia then proceeded into the stem tissue through intercellular channels (Stage III). At the channel bases, Nostoc was detected between the cell walls of small, densely cytoplasmic Gunnera cells and also in elaborate folds of these (Stage IV). The Gunnera cell walls subsequently dissolved adjacent to the cyanobacteria and Nostoc entered the host cells (Stage V). Once the intracellular association was formed, a high proportion of the vegetative Nostoc cells differentiated into heterocysts (Stage VI). Nostoc changed from being rich in inclusions (particularly cyanophycin) while on the gland surface into a comparatively “non-storing” form during penetration and the early intracellular stages. Bacteria were numerous on the gland surface, fewer in the channels, and were never detected within the Gunnera cells, indicating the existence of specific recognition mechanisms discriminating between conceivable microsymbionts. Mechanisms behind mutual adaptations and interactions between the two symbionts are discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Cyanobacterium ; Gunnera ; Heterocyst ; Nitrogenase ; Nostoc ; Symbiosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Developmental patterns related to nitrogen fixation in the heterocystous cyanobacteriumNostoc harboured in distinct colonies along the stem ofGunnera magellanica Lam. plantlets were examined using successive plant sections. Pronounced morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations in the cyanobacterium were demonstrated. Close to the growing apex the cyanobacterial biomass, contained in smallGunnera cells, was low and consisted mostly of vegetative cells showing a high density of different storage structures except for cyanophycin granules. In contrast, both the total and specific nitrogenase activity and the relative nitrogenase protein level were at maximum within this part; while the frequency of heterocysts increased from zero to 30% within the same area. The nitrogenase protein was localized only in the heterocysts throughout the plant. Further down theGunnera stem there was a progressive increase in both the cyanobacterial biomass and the heterocyst frequency, which finally constituted about 60% of the cyanobacterial cell population. Throughout this part of the stem, cyanophycin granules were frequent in the vegetativeNostoc cells. At the base of the stem, degeneratedNostoc cells dominated and the nitrogenase activity was close to zero, although the nitrogenase protein remained. Degeneration of theNostoc cells and leaf shedding coincided. Both intact plants (approx. 20 mm in height) and plant stem sections (2 mm in length) showed substantial nitrogenase activity, although sectioning caused a 30% reduction in total nitrogenase activity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Cyanobacterium ; Cycad ; cyanobacterium symbiosis ; Cycas ; Glutamine synthetase ; Symbiosis ; Zamia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria inhabit the zone between the inner and outer cortex of cycad coralloid roots. In the growing tip of such roots the cyanobacterial heterocyst frequency, nitrogenase activity (C2H2-reduction) and glutamine synthetase activity (both transferase and biosynthetic) were comparable to those found in freeliving cyanobacteria. The relative level of glutamine synthetase protein and its pattern of cellular/subcellular localization in heterocysts and vegetative cells were also similar to those of free-living cyanobacteria. However, there was a progressive decline in nitrogenase activity along the coralloid root with maximum reduction occurring in the regions farthest from the growing tip. A similar but less pronounced pattern was observed for glutamine synthetase activity. Distribution of glutamine synthetase protein in cyanobacteria in the first 2–3 mm of the root tip indicated a slight decrease in the heterocysts and vegetative cells. However, the overall level of cyanobacterial glutamine synthetase protein did not change because of a drastic increase in the numbers of heterocysts, which contain a proportionally higher level of glutamine synthetase than the vegetative cells.
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