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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words Nephrotoxicity ; LLC-PK1 cells ; FK506 ; Cyclosporin A ; ATP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) are two potent immunosupressants with similar toxicity profile. Nephrotoxicity is the main adverse effect of both compounds. The aim of this study is to compare the in vitro nephrotoxic effects on renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 by measuring cell viability and energy status as evaluated by concentrations of ATP and ATP metabolites. Cell viability (expressed as IC50 was assessed via thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay after incubation for 4–24 h with FK506 or CsA. ATP and its metabolites were determined by HPLC after 4 and 6 h incubation with FK506 or CsA alone at the respective IC50. Both FK506 and CsA decreased cell viability to similar extents, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 4 h incubation, both drugs decreased ATP levels (−25%) and increased uric acid levels. However, the latter percentage increase was twofold higher with CsA (18%) than with FK506 (9%). The energy charge, calculated according to levels of adenine nucleotides, was decreased by 10% in FK506-treated cells and by 27% in CsA-treated cells. At the end of 6-h incubation, FK506-treated cells maintained ATP levels coupled with energy charge at near control levels whereas the levels were 32% lower in CsA treated cells. Compared to the 4 h-incubation, the increase in uric acid was similar for FK506 but was doubled with CsA. The decrease in cell integrity and ATP depletion induced by CsA in LLC-PK1 cells was only transiently observed with FK506. By preserving energy status, FK506 leads to fewer metabolic disturbances than CsA in the renal epithelial cell line LLC-PK1, demonstrating a minor potential nephrotoxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Key words FK506 ; Cyclosporin A ; Cytochrome P-450 3A ; Toxicity ; In vitro
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A (CsA) are two potent immunosuppressants mainly metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A (CYP3A) monooxygenase. The aim of this study was to compare the toxic effects of the two drugs on hepatocytes in primary culture as a function of their metabolism and to explore the variations of cytotoxicity when both drugs are associated. The cytotoxicity of FK506 and CsA, as expressed by their IC50 values, was of the same order but with a switch according to whether hepatocytes were induced or uninduced by dexamethasone, CsA being more toxic in its native form and FK506 through its metabolism. Similar results were obtained with the intracellular calcium content. When both drugs were associated at their IC50 values, the expected additive cytotoxic effect was not observed. Moreover, when small quantities of FK506 were added to CsA at its IC50, cell viability improved in the induced cultures. It is hypothesized that the interaction between the two drugs relies on a mechanism involving both competition of FK506 and CsA for CYP3A and of their immunophilin complexes for a common site on the calcineurin-calmodulin complex.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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