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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Key words HMPAO-SPECT ; Alzheimer’s disease ; Hypoperfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The primary objective of this study was to test hypotheses about the relationship between HMPAO-SPECT findings and probable Alzheimer’s disease (DAT) in a relatively large sample of patients diagnosed according to DSM-III-R. SPECT patterns of 20 controls and 116 DAT patients were investigated. Left and right frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions of the brain were rated as showing a hypoperfusion or not. A wide variety of patterns were found and these are described in detail below. In DAT patients, temporal and/or parietal regions were affected significantly more often (88%, p 〉 0.001) than frontal and/or occipital regions (70%). A bilateral temporoparietal pattern, which has been repeatedly reported as typical for DAT, was observed in 48% of DAT patients, but also in 25% of controls, and did not differentiate significantly between these two groups (p 〉 0.05). Conversely, more than three regions with hypoperfusion were observed significantly more often in DAT patients (48%, p 〈 0.01) than in controls (10%). In DAT patients, the number of regions with hypoperfusion correlated significantly with the score of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, r = 0.33, p 〈 0.001). The frequency of at least one hypoperfusion was approximately equal in left and right hemispheres (77% vs. 73%, p = 0.2). The hypothesis that cognitive decline in DAT starts in the temporal regions was tested in 14 SPECT patterns showing only one region with hypoperfusion. In 12 of these patterns, a temporal region was in fact affected (p 〈 0.001). Whereas hypoperfusion in frontal areas was not accompanied by a significantly lower MMSE than when only temporoparietal regions were affected, MMSE scores were significantly lower when occipital regions were affected in addition to temporoparietal regions (p 〈 0.05). The clinical use of SPECT findings was tested in discriminating analyses with the MMSE and a delayed recall test as additional predictors of DAT. Whereas the MMSE and the delayed recall test differentiated significantly between DAT patients and controls, SPECT findings yielded no further differentiation. In conclusion, the theoretical and clinical implications of SPECT findings and their relationships to other physiological and psychological variables deserve further investigation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Gewebeexpansion ; Dünndarm ; Kurzdarmsyndrom ; Ileumkontinenztasche
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Tissue expanders (inflatable silicone balloons) were implanted into a bypassed ileum segment of seven pigs and consecutively filled over 8 to 12 weeks. The mean increase of the volume of the small bowel loops was 12 fold with a maximum of 22.8 times the original volume. The final volume 9 weeks after expander removal still presented an increase of 500%. Histologically there was an increase of the thickness of all layers of the bowel wall, especially in the tunica muscularis. The mucosa showed a value above normal in mean in vitro 14C-resorption capacity per surface area in the reintegrated bowel. Possible clinical applications of the augmentation of the gut by expansion as a rectum substitute after proctocolectomy, as a urinary bladder or stomach substitute, and for the treatment of short bowel syndrome are discussed.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Gewebeexpander (auffüllbare Silikonballons) wurden bei sieben Schweinen in ein ausgeschaltetes Ileumsegment implantiert und anschließend über 8 bis 12 Wochen aufgefüllt. Die mittlere Volumenzunahme der Dünndarmschlinge lag beim Zwölffachen des Ausgangswertes (maximal 22,8fach). Neun Wochen nach Expanderentfernung und Wiedereinschaltung in die Kontinuität betrug das mittlere Endvolumen immer noch 500%. Histologisch fand sich eine Zunahme der Dicke aller Darmwandschichten, insbesondere der Tunica muscularis. Die mittlere in-vitro-l4C-Glukoseresorptionsleistung des wiedereingeschalteten Ileums lag über den Kontrollen. Eine mögliche Nutzung der Darmvergrößerung durch Expansion als Mastdarm-, Blasen- oder Magenersatz und zur Behandlung des Kurzdarmsyndroms werden diskutiert.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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