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  • DIET  (2)
  • GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; FUTURE ; EPIC-GERMANY ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; D-BINDING PROTEIN ; CIRCULATING VITAMIN-D ; CASE-COHORT
    Abstract: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in observational studies. Also, SNPs to explain variation in 25(OH)D have been identified by genome-wide association studies. Detection of direct associations between SNPs that significantly affect 25(OH)D and CVD risk would indicate a causal role of vitamin D, as reverse causation could be excluded and confounding could be better controlled. Thus, a combined analysis of candidate SNPs in relation to circulating 25(OH)D and CVD risk was carried out. A case-cohort study within the EPIC-Germany study was conducted comprising a randomly drawn subcohort of 2,132 subjects (57.9% women, mean age: 50.6 years) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (n=559) and stroke (n=471) that occurred during a mean follow-up duration of 7.6 years. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS in baseline plasma samples. Additionally, eight candidate SNPs were assayed. Associations between 25(OH)D, SNPs and the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke were assessed by multivariable regression analyses. Mean 25(OH)D level was 47.2 nmol/L in the subcohort. Four SNPs were associated with 25(OH)D (p〈0.05). In subjects with 25(OH)D levels 〈25 nmol/L, the risks of CVD as composite endpoint (Hazard Ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-2.09), myocardial infarction, and stroke were significantly increased compared to subjects with levels 〉/=50 nmol/L, while no significant linear associations were observed. A SNP score was not related to the risks of total CVD (Hazard Ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.71-1.42), myocardial infarction, or stroke. The same was true concerning single SNPs. Given the lack of association between SNPs and the risks of stroke and myocardial infarction, the present findings do not point to a major causal role of vitamin D in the development of these diseases. However, a detection of modest associations between genetic markers and CVD risk in larger consortia cannot be ruled out.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23935930
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  • 2
    Keywords: PROSTATE-CANCER ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; EPIC PROJECT ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GERMAN PART ; D DEFICIENCY ; D SUPPLEMENTATION ; D INSUFFICIENCY ; 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D LEVELS
    Abstract: Considerable variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in populations worldwide that seems to be independent of latitude has been reported. Therefore, we aimed to assess vitamin D status of a mid-aged German general population and to identify its dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric, and genetic determinants. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS in plasma samples of a random subcohort of the German arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) comprising 2,100 subjects aged 35-65 years. Associations between potential predictors and 25(OH)D were assessed by linear regression models. 32.8 % of the variance in 25(OH)D was explained by a multivariable regression model, with season being the by far strongest predictor (semi-partial R (2): 14.6 %). Sex, waist circumference, leisure time physical activity, smoking, polymorphisms in the GC, CYP2R1, and DHCR7 genes, supplement use, exogenous hormone use, alcohol consumption, egg consumption, and fish consumption were significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations as well. However, none of these factors explained 〉 2.3 % of the variance in 25(OH)D. Even with a comprehensive set of genetic, anthropometric, dietary, and lifestyle correlates, not more than 32.8 % of the variation in 25(OH)D could be explained in the EPIC-Germany study, implying that vitamin D prediction scores may not provide an appropriate proxy for measured 25(OH)D. Food intake was only a weak predictor of 25(OH)D concentrations, while a strong seasonal fluctuation in 25(OH)D was shown.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24005870
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  • 3
    Keywords: COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; DRINKING ; CELL CARCINOMA ; METAANALYSIS ; KIDNEY CANCER ; FLUID INTAKE
    Abstract: Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25866035
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; BODY-WEIGHT ; OBESITY ; DIET ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PARTICIPANTS ; RATIONALE ; PROCESSED FOODS ; NUTRITION TRANSITION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between dietary trans fatty acids and weight gain, and the evidence remains inconsistent. The main objective of the study was to investigate the prospective association between biomarker of industrial trans fatty acids and change in weight within the large study European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Baseline plasma fatty acid concentrations were determined in a representative EPIC sample from the 23 participating EPIC centers. A total of 1,945 individuals were followed for a median of 4.9 years to monitor weight change. The association between elaidic acid level and percent change of weight was investigated using a multinomial logistic regression model, adjusted by length of follow-up, age, energy, alcohol, smoking status, physical activity, and region. RESULTS: In women, doubling elaidic acid was associated with a decreased risk of weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.88, p = 0.002) and a trend was observed with an increased risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.97-1.56, p = 0.082) (p-trend〈.0001). In men, a trend was observed for doubling elaidic acid level and risk of weight loss (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01, p = 0.062) while no significant association was found with risk of weight gain during the 5-year follow-up (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.88-1.33, p = 0.454). No association was found for saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a high intake of industrial trans fatty acids may decrease the risk of weight loss, particularly in women. Prevention of obesity should consider limiting the consumption of highly processed foods, the main source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25675445
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