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  • CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS  (1)
  • DISEASE  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: COUNTRIES ; SMOKERS ; INEQUALITIES ; ADULTS ; CESSATION ; INTERVENTIONS ; PRICE ; CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS ; REDUCE SMOKING ; EQUITY IMPACT
    Abstract: Introduction: The aim of the current study is to investigate trends and socioeconomic differences in policy triggers for thinking about quitting in six European countries. Methods: Data were derived from all available survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys (2003-2013). France conducted three survey waves (n = 1420-1735), Germany three waves (n = 515-1515), The Netherlands seven waves (n = 1420-1668), Ireland three waves (n = 582-1071), Scotland two waves (n = 461-507), and the rest of the United Kingdom conducted seven survey waves (n = 861-1737). Smokers were asked whether four different policies (cigarette price, smoking restrictions in public places, free or lower cost medication, and warning labels on cigarette packs) influenced them to think about quitting. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated for each country. Results: Cigarette price was mentioned most often in all countries and across all waves as trigger for thinking about quitting. Mentioning cigarette price and warning labels increased after the implementation of price increases and warning labels in some countries, while mentioning smoking restrictions decreased after their implementation in four countries. All studied policy triggers were mentioned more often by smokers with low and/or moderate education and income than smokers with high education and income. The education and income differences did not change significantly over time for most policies and in most countries. Conclusions: Tobacco control policies work as a trigger to increase thoughts about quitting, particularly in smokers with low education and low income and therefore have the potential to reduce health inequalities in smoking.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26282108
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  • 2
    Keywords: DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; CHILDREN ; DETERMINANTS ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; PASSIVE SMOKING ; SECONDHAND SMOKE ; 4 COUNTRY SURVEY ; 2ND-HAND SMOKE ; MOTOR-VEHICLES ; POLLUTION
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers' rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. METHODS: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), and the Netherlands (2008). Smokers in France and Germany were asked about smoking rules in their cars, and smokers in the Netherlands were asked about smoking rules in cars carrying children. RESULTS: In France and Germany, 59% and 52% of smokers respectively, allowed smoking in their cars. In the Netherlands, 36% of smokers allowed smoking in cars carrying children. Predictors of allowing smoking in cars included: being a daily vs. non-daily smoker, being younger vs. older age, having no (young) children in the home, being a heavier smoker, and allowing smoking in the home. In the Netherlands, smokers who agreed that TSP is dangerous to non-smokers were less likely to allow smoking in cars carrying children. CONCLUSION: Overall, a sizeable proportion of smokers allowed smoking in their cars across the three countries. Media campaigns with information about the dangers of TSP may increase the adoption of smoke-free cars. These media campaigns could target smokers who are most likely to allow smoking in cars.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22294780
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