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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEALTH ; PROJECT ; nutrition ; HEART-DISEASE ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; fruits and vegetables ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; cardiovascular disease ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE MORTALITY ; ALL-CAUSE ; HIROSHIMA/NAGASAKI LIFE-SPAN ; Respiratory disease
    Abstract: Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95 % CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95 % CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25154553
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; DISEASE ; RISK-FACTORS ; HUMANS ; DIETARY ; PROJECT ; MELLITUS ; biomarker ; DAIRY PRODUCT INTAKE ; DE-NOVO LIPOGENESIS
    Abstract: Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2 diabetes in EPIC-InterAct participants. Methods The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study includes 12 403 people with incident type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort of 16 154 individuals who were selected from a cohort of 340 234 European participants with 3 . 99 million person-years of follow-up (the EPIC study). Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained until Dec 31, 2007, by a review of several sources of evidence. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids (mol%); samples from people with type 2 diabetes and subcohort participants were processed in a random order by centre, and laboratory staff were masked to participant characteristics. We estimated country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for associations per SD of each SFA with incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression, which is weighted for case-cohort sampling, and pooled our findings using random-effects meta-analysis. Findings SFAs accounted for 46% of total plasma phospholipid fatty acids. In adjusted analyses, different individual SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposing directions. Even-chain SFAs that were measured (14: 0 [myristic acid], 16: 0 [palmitic acid], and 18: 0 [stearic acid]) were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per SD difference: myristic acid 1.15 [95% CI 1.09-1.22], palmitic acid 1.26 [1.15-1.37], and stearic acid 1.06 [1.00-1.13]). By contrast, measured odd-chain SFAs (15: 0 [pentadecanoic acid] and 17: 0 [heptadecanoic acid]) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per 1 SD difference: 0.79 [0.73-0.85] for pentadecanoic acid and 0.67 [0.63-0.71] for heptadecanoic acid), as were measured longer-chain SFAs (20: 0 [arachidic acid], 22:0 [behenic acid], 23:0 [tricosanoic acid], and 24:0 [lignoceric acid]), with HRs ranging from 0.72 to 0.81 (95% CIs ranging between 0.61 and 0.92). Our findings were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Different individual plasma phospholipid SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposite directions, which suggests that SFAs are not homogeneous in their effects. Our findings emphasise the importance of the recognition of subtypes of these fatty acids. An improved understanding of differences in sources of individual SFAs from dietary intake versus endogenous metabolism is needed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25107467
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  • 3
    Keywords: MODELS ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; CONSUMPTION ; ADULTS ; METAANALYSIS ; fractional polynomials ; COMPETING RISKS ; GLOBAL BURDEN ; RATE ADVANCEMENT PERIODS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. DESIGN: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). SETTING: 23 centres in 10 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 380 395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6 years on average. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 20 453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. RESULTS: HRs comparing extreme drinkers (〉/=30 g/day in women and 〉/=60 g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1-4.9 g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60 years, drinking more than 30 g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60 g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24993766
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