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  • DISEASE  (9)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SYSTEM ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; etiology ; risk factors ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; DIETARY FACTORS ; ASSOCIATIONS ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; INTERVAL ; FRUITS ; methods ; function ; prospective ; prospective study ; RISK-FACTOR ; HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ; B-CELL ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; DRINKING-WATER NITRATE
    Abstract: Introduction Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases of cells of the immune system. The best-established risk factors are related to dys-regulation of immune function, and evidence suggests that factors such as dietary or lifestyle habits may be involved in the etiology. Material and methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 849 lymphoma cases were identified in a median follow-up period of 6.4 years. Fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of lymphomas overall and subentities. Results There was no overall association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphoma [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.15 comparing highest with lowest quartile]. However, the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) tended to be lower in participants with a high intake of total vegetables (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.02). Conclusion In this large prospective study, an inverse associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphomas overall could not be confirmed. Associations with lymphoma subentities such as DLBCL warrant further investigation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17443415
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  • 2
    Keywords: COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; DIET ; CALIBRATION ; RED MEAT ; CERTIFICATES ; 21-YEAR FOLLOW-UP ; VEGETARIANS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or myocardial infarction, and with complete information on diet, smoking, physical activity and body mass index, who were between 35 and 69 years old at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association of meat consumption with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: As of June 2009, 26,344 deaths were observed. After multivariate adjustment, a high consumption of red meat was related to higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.28, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day), and the association was stronger for processed meat (HR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.66, 160+ versus 10 to 19.9 g/day). After correction for measurement error, higher all-cause mortality remained significant only for processed meat (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.25, per 50 g/d). We estimated that 3.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 5.0%) of deaths could be prevented if all participants had a processed meat consumption of less than 20 g/day. Significant associations with processed meat intake were observed for cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and 'other causes of death'. The consumption of poultry was not related to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23497300
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; TIME ; METABOLITES ; PLASMA ; AGE ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; REGION ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; REGIONS ; POPULATIONS ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; EUROPE ; LIGNANS ; BREAST-CANCER RISK ; isoflavones ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; EPIC PROJECT ; analysis ; USA ; prospective ; LIMIT ; ENTEROLACTONE CONCENTRATION ; DAIDZEIN ; genistein ; SERUM ENTEROLACTONE ; EQUOL ; DIETARY PHYTOESTROGEN ; LEVEL CORRELATIONS ; NUTRITION-NORFOLK ; PLANT FOODS
    Abstract: Dietary phytoestrogens may play a role in chronic disease occurrence. The aim of our study was to assess the variability of plasma concentrations in European populations. We included 15 geographical regions in 9 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, and UK) and a 16th region, Oxford, UK, where participants were recruited from among vegans and vegetarians. All subjects were participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma concentrations of 3 isoflavones(daidzein, genistein, and glycitein), 2 metabolites of daidzein [O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) and equol] and 2 mammalian lignans enterodiol and enterolactone) were measured in 1414 participants. We computed geometric means for each region and used multivariate regression analysis to assess the influence of region, adjusted for gender, age, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, and laboratory batch. Many subjects had concentrations below the detection limit [0.1 mu g/L (0.4 nmol/L)] for glycitein (80%), O-DMA (73%) and equol (62%). Excluding subjects from Oxford, UK, the highest concentrations of isoflavones were in subjects from the Netherlands and Cambridge, UK [2-6 mu g/L (7-24 nmol/L); P 〈 0.05], whereas concentrations for lignans were highest in Denmark [8 mu g/L (27 nmol/L); P 〈 0.05]. Isoflavones varied 8-to 13-fold, whereas lignans varied 4-fold. In the vegetarian/vegan cohort of Oxford, concentrations of isoflavones were 5-50 times higher than in nonvegetarian regions. Region was the most important determinant of plasma concentrations for all 7 phytoestrogens. Despite the fact that plasma concentrations of phytoestrogens in Europe were low compared with Asian populations, they varied substantially among subjects from the 16 different regions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17449595
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  • 4
    Keywords: DISEASE ; PRIMARY LIVER-CANCER ; ASSOCIATION ; DESIGN ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; HEPATITIS-B ; N-3 FATTY-ACIDS ; RATIONALE ; NIH-AARP COHORT ; THAILAND
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. METHODS: The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case-control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. RESULTS: HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50-1.09, respectively) in a nested case-control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23670094
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  • 5
    Keywords: DISEASE ; colon ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; nutrition ; RECTAL-CANCER ; SERUM ; URINARY NEOPTERIN ; VITAMIN STATUS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neopterin may be relevant for colorectal cancer (CRC) development, as a biomarker of cellular immune activity exerting pleiotropic effects on cellular ageing, oxidative stress, and inflammation. So far, the association between prediagnostic neopterin and colon and rectal cancer risk has not been evaluated in human populations. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort using data on plasma concentrations of total neopterin (T-N, sum of neopterin and 7,8-dihydroneopterin) in 830 incident CRC case patients (561 colon and 269 rectal) matched within risk sets to 830 control participants. A subsequent replication study used data from the Hordaland Health Study, where 173 CRC case patients have been diagnosed among 6594 healthy participants over 12 years of follow-up. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment for a priori chosen CRC risk factors, a "U-shaped" association of T-N with CRC was revealed. Compared with the second quintile of the T-N distribution, the relative risks for the first, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles were 2.37 (95% CI = 1.66 to 3.39), 1.24 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.77), 1.55 (95% CI = 1.08 to 2.22), and 2.31 (95% CI = 1.63 to 3.27), respectively. Replication of these associations within the Hordaland Health Study yielded similar results. No differences have been observed when the associations were explored by colon and rectal cancer site (two-sided P difference = .87) and after excluding case patients diagnosed within the first four follow-up years. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings provide evidence of the role of both suppressed and activated cell-mediated immunity as reflected by prediagnostic T-N concentrations in the development of CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25713165
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; MEN ; REDUCED RISK ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; SWEDEN ; REGION ; REGIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD ; RE ; PRODUCTS ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; PROFILES ; SIZE ; HORMONES ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; intake ; FOODS ; NORTHERN ; 24-hour dietary recall ; descriptive study ; peanuts ; portion size ; seeds ; tree nuts ; WALNUTS
    Abstract: Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts=4 center dot 4%, peanuts=2 center dot 3 % and seeds=1 center dot 3 %. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake=0 center dot 15 g/d, average portion size=15 center dot 1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake=2 center dot 99 g/d, average portion size=34 center dot 7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28 center dot 5 v. 23 center dot 1 g/d, P 〈 0 center dot 01) and peanuts (46 center dot 1 v. 35 center dot 1 g/d, P 〈 0 center dot 01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17125528
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  • 7
    Keywords: DISEASE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; meat ; CALIBRATION ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; EPIC PROJECT ; METAANALYSIS ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE
    Abstract: Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, 〉/=25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22438075
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  • 8
    Keywords: DISEASE ; ASSOCIATION ; INFECTIONS ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; NON-HODGKIN-LYMPHOMA ; SUN EXPOSURE ; ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION ; SUBSEQUENT RISK ; VITAMIN-D STATUS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The relation between vitamin D status and lymphoma risk is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and lymphoid cancer risk. DESIGN: We conducted a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of 1127 lymphoma cases and 1127 matched controls with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 y. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted incidence rate ratios of lymphoma risk in relation to plasma 25(OH)D. Season-standardized and season-specific 25(OH)D quartiles were used. We also analyzed 25(OH)D as a continuous variable and used predefined cutoffs. RESULTS: No statistically significant association between plasma 25(OH)D and overall lymphoid cancer risk was observed. A positive association for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was noted only in those with a diagnosis made during the first 2 y of follow-up (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), which suggests the possibility of reverse causality. Further analysis restricted to participants with 〉/=2 y of follow-up time showed a significant association between 25(OH)D and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n = 161): adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.90; P-trend = 0.05) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.76; P-trend = 0.03) for the top compared with the bottom season-standardized and season-specific quartiles, respectively. Data on dietary vitamin D intake provided further support for the observed association (incidence rate ratio: 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.89; P-trend = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a protective role of high 25(OH)D concentration in lymphoid cancers overall. However, they suggest that higher concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with a reduced risk of CLL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23885049
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  • 9
    Keywords: DISEASE ; COMPONENTS ; INTERVENTION ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; SWEDEN ; CHROMATOGRAPHY ; dietary fiber ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ADULTS ; PRODUCTS
    Abstract: Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24521535
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