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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; TIME ; POLYMORPHISMS ; hippocampus ; CARE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; smoking ; RATES ; DAMAGE ; RISK FACTOR ; PREVALENCE ; LIPID-PEROXIDATION ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CORTEX ; USA ; prospective ; INCREASED RISK ; RISK-FACTOR ; lipid ; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; INVESTIGATE ; 33 ; FORMALDEHYDE ; SPORADIC ALS
    Abstract: Objective: Cigarette smoking has been reported as "probable" risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS. Methods: A total of 517,890 healthy subjects were included, resulting in 4,591,325 person-years. ALS cases were ascertained through death certificates. Cox hazard models were built to investigate the role of smoking on the risk of ALS, using packs/years and smoking duration to study dose-response. Results: A total of 118 subjects died from ALS, resulting in a crude mortality rate of 2.69 per 100,000/year. Current smokers at recruitment had an almost two-fold increased risk of dying from ALS compared to never smokers (HR = 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.14-3.14), while former smokers at the time of enrolment had a 50% increased risk (HR = 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.94-2-32). The number of years spent smoking increased the risk of ALS (p for trend = 0.002). Those who smoked more than 33 years had more than a two-fold increased risk of ALS compared with never smokers (HR = 2.16, 95% C.I. 1.33-3.53). Conversely, the number of years since quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of ALS compared with continuing smoking. Interpretation: These results strongly support the hypothesis of a role of cigarette smoking in aetiology of ALS. We hypothesize that this could occur through lipid peroxidation via formaldehyde exposure. Ann Neurol 2009;65:378-385
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19399866
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; CELL ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; RNA ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; ACTIVATION ; BINDING ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; CHROMATIN ; gene expression ; PROMOTER ; genetics ; MODULATION ; C-MYC ; REPRESSION ; TRANSCRIPTIONAL REPRESSION ; MYCN ; neuroblastoma ; N-MYC ; signaling ; ONCOLOGY ; B-CELL LYMPHOMAS ; miRNA ; outcome ; MICRORNA ; CELL BIOLOGY ; Genetic ; COHORTS ; EXPRESSION SIGNATURES ; PATHWAY DEREGULATION
    Abstract: Increased activity of MYC protein-family members is a common feature in many cancers. Using neuroblastoma as a tumor model, we established a microRNA (miRNA) signature for activated MYCN/c-MYC signaling in two independent primary neuroblastoma tumor cohorts and provide evidence that c-MYC and MYCN have overlapping functions. On the basis of an integrated approach including miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression data we show that miRNA activation contributes to widespread mRNA repression, both in c-MYC- and MYCN-activated tumors. c-MYC/MYCN-induced miRNA activation was shown to be dependent on c-MYC/MYCN promoter binding as evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Finally, we show that pathways, repressed through c-MYC/MYCN miRNA activation, are highly correlated to tumor aggressiveness and are conserved across different tumor entities suggesting that c-MYC/MYCN activate a core set of miRNAs for cooperative repression of common transcriptional programs related to disease aggressiveness. Our results uncover a widespread correlation between miRNA activation and c-MYC/MYCN-mediated coding gene expression modulation and further substantiate the overlapping functions of c-MYC and MYCN in the process of tumorigenesis. Oncogene (2010) 29, 1394-1404; doi:10.1038/onc.2009.429; published online 30 November 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19946337
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; RISK FACTOR ; EPIC ; nutrition ; TRENDS ; education ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; LYMPHOMAS ; prospective ; B-CELL ; SUBGROUPS ; SES ; non-Hodgkin
    Abstract: Lymphomas belong to the few cancer sites with increasing incidence over past decades, and only a few risk factors have been established. We explored the association between education and the incidence of lymphoma in the prospective EPIC study. Within 3,567,410 person-years of follow-up, 1,319 lymphoma cases [1,253 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 66 Hodgkin lymphomas (HL)] were identified. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to examine the association between highest educational level (primary school or less, technical/professional school, secondary school, university) and lymphoma risk. Overall, no consistent associations between educational level and lymphoma risk were observed; however, associations were found for sub-groups of the cohort. We observed a higher risk of B-NHL (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.02-1.68; n = 583) in women with the highest education level (university) but not in men. Concerning sub-classes of B-NHL, a positive association between education and risk of B cell chronic lymphatic leukaemia (BCLL) was observed only in women. In both genders, the risk of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was significantly lower for subjects with university degree (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27-0.79) versus lowest educational level. No association was found for HL. We could not confirm an overall consistent association of education and risk of HL or NHL in this large prospective study; although, education was positively related to the incidence of BCLL and B-NHL (in women) but inversely to incidence of DLBCL. Due to limited number of cases in sub-classes and the large number of comparisons, the possibility of chance findings can not be excluded
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19582474
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CLASSIFICATION ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; microarray ; validation ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; IDENTIFICATION ; AMPLIFICATION ; gene expression ; MICROARRAY DATA ; microarrays ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; PREDICTION ; SELECTION ; CANCER PATIENTS ; neuroblastoma ; ONCOLOGY ; GENE-EXPRESSION PROFILES ; development ; prospective ; RISK STRATIFICATION ; outcome ; SIGNATURES ; EXPRESSION SIGNATURES ; STRATIFICATION
    Abstract: Purpose: Reliable prognostic stratification remains a challenge for cancer patients, especially for diseases with variable clinical course such as neuroblastoma. Although numerous studies have shown that outcome might be predicted using gene expression signatures, independent cross-platform validation is often lacking. Experimental Design: Using eight independent studies comprising 933 neuroblastoma patients, a prognostic gene expression classifier was developed, trained, tested, and validated. The classifier was established based on reanalysis of four published studies with updated clinical information, reannotation of the probe sequences, common risk definition for training cases, and a single method for gene selection (prediction analysis of microarray) and classification (correlation analysis). Results: Based on 250 training samples from four published microarray data sets, a correlation signature was built using 42 robust prognostic genes. The resulting classifier was validated on 351 patients from four independent and unpublished data sets and on 129 remaining test samples from the published studies. Patients with divergent outcome in the total cohort, as well as in the different risk groups, were accurately classified (log-rank P 〈 0.001 for overall and progression-free survival in the four independent data sets). Moreover, the 42-gene classifier was shown to be an independent predictor for survival (odds ratio, 〉5). Conclusion: The strength of this 42-gene classifier is its small number of genes and its cross-platform validity in which it outperforms other published prognostic signatures. The robustness and accuracy of the classifier enables prospective assessment of neuroblastoma patient outcome. Most importantly, this gene selection procedure might be an example for development and validation of robust gene expression signatures in other cancer entities. Clin Cancer Res; 16(5); 1532-41. (C)2010 AACR
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20179214
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  • 5
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; CLASSIFICATION ; DIAGNOSIS ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; PATIENT ; MARKER ; IMPACT ; STAGE ; AMPLIFICATION ; gene expression ; microarrays ; AGE ; MARKERS ; HIGH-RISK ; STRATEGIES ; SPONTANEOUS REGRESSION ; PREDICTION ; INFANTS ; pathology ; CHILDREN ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; neuroblastoma ; ONCOLOGY ; REGRESSION ; overall survival ; INDEPENDENT PROGNOSTIC MARKER ; methods ; PROGNOSTIC MARKER ; PROFILES ; EXPRESSION PROFILES ; RISK STRATIFICATION ; SUBGROUPS ; MYC ; PROFILE ; outcome ; STRATEGY ; CONTRIBUTE ; COHORTS ; COX REGRESSION ; clinical oncology ; STRATIFICATION ; prognostic
    Abstract: Purpose To evaluate the impact of a predefined gene expression - based classifier for clinical risk estimation and cytotoxic treatment decision making in neuroblastoma patients. Patients and Methods Gene expression profiles of 440 internationally collected neuroblastoma specimens were investigated by microarray analysis, 125 of which were examined prospectively. Patients were classified as either favorable or unfavorable by a 144- gene prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM) classifier established previously on a separate set of 77 patients. PAM classification results were compared with those of current prognostic markers and risk estimation strategies. Results The PAM classifier reliably distinguished patients with contrasting clinical courses (favorable [n = 249] and unfavorable [n = 191]; 5- year event free survival [EFS] 0.84 +/- 0.03 v 0.38 +/- 0.04; 5-year overall survival [OS] 0.98 +/- 0.01 v 0.56 +/- 0.05, respectively; both P = .001). Moreover, patients with divergent outcome were robustly discriminated in both German and international cohorts and in prospectively analyzed samples (P = .001 for both EFS and OS for each). In subgroups with clinical low-, intermediate-, and high-risk of death from disease, the PAM predictor significantly separated patients with divergent outcome (low-risk 5-year OS: 1.0 v 0.75 +/- 0.10, P = .001; intermediaterisk: 1.0 v 0.82 +/- 0.08, P = .042; and high-risk: 0.81 +/- 0.08 v 0.43 = 0.05, P=.001). In multivariate Cox regression models based on both EFS and OS, PAM was a significant independent prognostic marker (EFS: hazard ratio [HR], 3.375; 95% CI, 2.075 to 5.492; P=.001; OS: HR, 11.119, 95% CI, 2.487 to 49.701; P=.001). The highest potential clinical impact of the classifier was observed in patients currently considered as non - high- risk (n= 289; 5- year EFS: 0.87= 0.02 v 0.44= 0.07; 5- year OS: 1.0 v 0.80= 0.06; both P=.001). Conclusion Gene expression - based classification using the 144- gene PAM predictor can contribute to improved treatment stratification of neuroblastoma patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20567016
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENES ; REED-STERNBERG CELLS ; CLASS-I ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; PSORIASIS ; INFECTIOUS-MONONUCLEOSIS ; susceptibility loci ; DISEASE HD
    Abstract: Accumulating evidence suggests that risk factors for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) differ by tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. This potential etiological heterogeneity is not recognized in current disease classification. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 1200 cHL patients and 6417 control subjects, with validation in an independent replication series, to identify common genetic variants associated with total cHL and subtypes defined by tumor EBV status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) assuming a log-additive genetic model for the variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Two novel loci associated with total cHL irrespective of EBV status were identified in the major histocompatibility complex region; one resides adjacent to MICB (rs2248462: OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.69, P = 1.3 x 10(-13)) and the other at HLA-DRA (rs2395185: OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.62, P = 8.3 x 10(-25)) with both results confirmed in an independent replication series. Consistent with previous reports, associations were found between EBV-positive cHL and genetic variants within the class I region (rs2734986, HLA-A: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.00 to 3.00, P = 1.2 x 10(-15); rs6904029, HCG9: OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.59, P = 5.5 x 10(-10)) and between EBV-negative cHL and rs6903608 within the class II region (rs6903608, HLA-DRA: OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.84 to 2.35, P = 6.1 x 10(-31)). The association between rs6903608 and EBV-negative cHL was confined to the nodular sclerosis histological subtype. Evidence for an association between EBV-negative cHL and rs20541 (5q31, IL13: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.32 to 1.76, P = 5.4 x 10(-9)), a variant previously linked to psoriasis and asthma, was observed; however, the evidence for replication was less clear. Notably, one additional psoriasis-associated variant, rs27524 (5q15, ERAP1), showed evidence of an association with cHL in the genome-wide association study (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.33, P = 1.5 x 10(-4)) and replication series (P = .03). Overall, these results provide strong evidence that EBV status is an etiologically important classification of cHL and also suggest that some components of the pathological process are common to both EBV-positive and EBV-negative patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22286212
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; FOLLOW-UP ; LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; NEW-YORK ; RISK ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; TIME ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; chromosome ; SIGNAL ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; genetics ; SNP ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; BLADDER ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; NETHERLANDS ; INDIVIDUALS ; heredity ; VARIANT ; USA ; NOR ; CANCERS ; 8Q24 ; NOV ; UPSTREAM ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association study ; RATIO ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; GENOME-WIDE ; P63 EXPRESSION ; UROTHELIAL CELL-CARCINOMA
    Abstract: We conducted a genome-wide SNP association study on 1,803 urinary bladder cancer (UBC) cases and 34,336 controls from Iceland and The Netherlands and follow up studies in seven additional case-control groups (2,165 cases and 3,800 controls). The strongest association was observed with allele T of rs9642880 on chromosome 8q24, 30 kb upstream of MYC (allele-specific odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; P = 9.34 x 10(-12)). Approximately 20% of individuals of European ancestry are homozygous for rs9642880[T], and their estimated risk of developing UBC is 1.49 times that of noncarriers. No association was observed between UBC and the four 8q24 variants previously associated with prostate, colorectal and breast cancers, nor did rs9642880 associate with any of these three cancers. A weaker signal, but nonetheless of genome-wide significance, was captured by rs710521[A] located near TP63 on chromosome 3q28 (allele-specific OR = 1.19; P = 1.15 x 10(-7))
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18794855
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; DISEASE ; RISK ; TUMORS ; DNA ; MARKER ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; MUTATION ; genetics ; BLADDER ; BLADDER-CANCER ; MARKERS ; RECURRENCE ; MUTATIONS ; NETHERLANDS ; VARIANT ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; UROTHELIAL CELL-CARCINOMA ; Genetic ; FGFR3 MUTATIONS
    Abstract: Previously, we reported germline DNA variants associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in Dutch and Icelandic subjects. Here we expanded the Icelandic sample set and tested the top 20 markers from the combined analysis in several European case-control sample sets, with a total of 4,739 cases and 45,549 controls. The T allele of rs798766 on 4p16.3 was found to associate with UBC (odds ratio = 1.24, P = 9.9 x 10(-12)). rs798766 is located in an intron of TACC3, 70 kb from FGFR3, which often harbors activating somatic mutations in low-grade, noninvasive UBC. Notably, rs798766[T] shows stronger association with low-grade and low-stage UBC than with more aggressive forms of the disease and is associated with higher risk of recurrence in low-grade stage Ta tumors. The frequency of rs798766[T] is higher in Ta tumors that carry an activating mutation in FGFR3 than in Ta tumors with wild-type FGFR3. Our results show a link between germline variants, somatic mutations of FGFR3 and risk of UBC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20348956
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  • 9
    Keywords: DISEASE ; ASSOCIATION ; INFECTIONS ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; NON-HODGKIN-LYMPHOMA ; SUN EXPOSURE ; ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION ; SUBSEQUENT RISK ; VITAMIN-D STATUS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The relation between vitamin D status and lymphoma risk is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and lymphoid cancer risk. DESIGN: We conducted a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of 1127 lymphoma cases and 1127 matched controls with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 y. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted incidence rate ratios of lymphoma risk in relation to plasma 25(OH)D. Season-standardized and season-specific 25(OH)D quartiles were used. We also analyzed 25(OH)D as a continuous variable and used predefined cutoffs. RESULTS: No statistically significant association between plasma 25(OH)D and overall lymphoid cancer risk was observed. A positive association for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was noted only in those with a diagnosis made during the first 2 y of follow-up (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), which suggests the possibility of reverse causality. Further analysis restricted to participants with 〉/=2 y of follow-up time showed a significant association between 25(OH)D and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n = 161): adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.90; P-trend = 0.05) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.76; P-trend = 0.03) for the top compared with the bottom season-standardized and season-specific quartiles, respectively. Data on dietary vitamin D intake provided further support for the observed association (incidence rate ratio: 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.89; P-trend = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a protective role of high 25(OH)D concentration in lymphoid cancers overall. However, they suggest that higher concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with a reduced risk of CLL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23885049
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