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  • DNA binding domain  (1)
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  • Springer  (2)
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  • Springer  (2)
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  • 1
    Keywords: treatment ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; SKIN ; mechanisms ; prevention ; HEALTH ; PROMOTER ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; cancer prevention ; smoking ; SNP ; REPAIR ; WOMEN ; LYMPHOCYTES ; DAMAGE ; GENOTYPES ; cancer risk ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; INDIVIDUALS ; case-control studies ; DNA-DAMAGE ; CANCER PATIENTS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE ; BODY ; RISK ; GENE ; ENZYMES ; DISEASE ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; DNA ; TUMORS ; validation ; DRUG ; RNA ; GENES ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; LUNG ; COMBINATION ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; CELLS ; CELL ; tumor ; AGENTS ; radiotherapy ; NSCLC ; CANCER-RISK ; cancer research ; RNA EXPRESSION ; ENZYME ; case control studies ; analysis ; GENOTYPE ; PROFILES ; single-nucleotide ; development ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM ; XRCC1 ; VARIANT ; WEIGHT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; case-control study ; GEMCITABINE ; CAPACITY ; DEFICIENCY ; small cell lung cancer ; AGENT ; SINGLE ; DNA repair ; MPO ; APE1
    Abstract: Cells in the body are permanently attacked by DNA-reactive species, both from intracellular and environmental sources. Inherited and acquired deficiencies in host defense mechanisms against DNA damage (metabolic and DNA repair enzymes) can modify cancer susceptibility as well as therapy response. Genetic profiles should help to identify high-risk individuals who subsequently can be enrolled in preventive measures or treated by tailored therapy regimens. Some of our attempts to define such risk profiles are presented. Cancer susceptibility: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metabolic and repair genes were investigated in a hospital-based lung cancer case-control study. When evaluating the risk associated with different genotypes for N-acetyltransferases (Wikman et al. 2001) and glutathione-S-transferases (Risch et al. 2001), it is mandatory to distinguish between the three major histological subtypes of lung tumors. A promoter polymorphism of the myeloperoxidase gene MPO was shown to decrease lung cancer susceptibility mainly in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (Dally et al. 2002). The CYP3A4*1B allele was also linked to an increased SCLC risk and in smoking women increased the risk of lung cancer eightfold (Dally et al. 2003b). Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes were shown to modulate lung cancer risk in smokers, and reduced DNA repair capacity elevated the disease risk (Rajaee-Behbahani et al. 2001). Investigations of several DNA repair gene variants revealed that lung cancer risk was only moderately affected by a single variant but was enhanced up to approximately threefold by specific risk allele combinations (Popanda et al. 2004). Therapy response: Inter-individual differences in therapy response are consistently observed with cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Initial results from ongoing studies showed that certain polymorphisms in drug transporter genes (ABCB1) differentially affect response outcome in histological subgroups of lung cancer. Stronger beneficial effects were seen in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following gemcitabine and in SCLC patients following etoposide-based treatment. Several DNA repair parameters (polymorphisms, RNA expression, and DNA repair capacity) were measured in vitro in lymphocytes of patients before radiotherapy and correlated with the occurrence of acute side effects (radio-hypersensitivity). Our initial analysis of several repair gene variants in breast cancer patients (n = 446) who received radiotherapy revealed no association of single polymorphisms and the development of side effects (moist desquamation of the irradiated normal skin). The risk for this side effect was, however, strongly reduced in normal weight women carrying a combination of XRCC1 399Gln and APE1 148Glu alleles, indicating that these variants afford some protection against radio-hypersensitivity (Chang-Claude et al. 2005). Based on these data we conclude that specific metabolic and DNA repair gene variants can affect cancer risk and therapy outcome. Predisposition to hereditary cancer syndromes is dominated by the strong effects of some high-penetrance tumor susceptibility genes, while predisposition to sporadic cancer is influenced by the combination of multiple low-penetrance genes, of which as a major challenge, many disease-relevant combinations remain to be identified. Before translating these findings into clinical use and application for public health measures, large population-based studies and validation of the results will be required.
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Mutant DNA polymerases ; Mutator Properties ; DNA binding domain ; dNTP binding Domain ; Malignant transformation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To investigate whether DNA replication in malignant cells deviates from that of normal cells we compared DNA polymerases α, δ, and ɛ from normal rat liver to the enzymes from fast-growing (malignant) Novikoff hepatoma cells. DNA polymerases were purified 300-fold by three chromatographic steps. Characterization included measurement of physicochemical constants (including sedimentation coefficients, diffusion coefficients, calculation of relative molecular masses), quantitation of catalytic activities using specific DNA primer templates (K m values) and inhibitors (K i values), and identification of polypeptides which are strongly associated with DNA polymerases. Comparison of physicochemical and catalytic properties of DNA polymerases from both sources revealed similarities but also some important differences. DNA primase associated with DNA polymerase α, and 3′–5′ exonuclease accompanying DNA polymerases δ and ɛ had similar activities. In contrast, the DNA-binding domain of DNA polymerases α and ɛ from hepatoma cells was altered since K m values, determined with the specific primer templates gapped calf thymus DNA and poly(dA·dT), were higher. Furthermore, sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, Stokes' radii, and frictional coefficient ratios of DNA polymerases α and ɛ from malignant cells significantly deviated. In addition, when the dNTP-binding sites were probed with specific inhibitors (aphidicolin, butylphenyl-dGTP, carbonyldiphosphonate, and dideoxy-TTP), significantly lower K i values were obtained for the polymerases from Novikoff cells indicating lower affinity of the dNTP binding site to deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates. Altered catalytic and molecular properties are possibly a consequence of malignant transformation. It is to be expected that similar changes occur in DNA polymerases of other tumors. In particular, diminished affinity to primer templates and weakened nucleotide binding leads to lowered specificity of nucleotide selection in the base-pairing process and is therefore likely to cause an enhanced mutation rate during malignant progression.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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