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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy ; nerve blood flow ; sural nerve ; sural sensory conduction velocity ; temperature ; exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Severe microvascular disease exists at the stage of clinical diabetic neuropathy. A non-invasive test that will identify those diabetic subjects who will eventually develop neuropathy is essential for early intervention. Sural sensory conduction velocity was recorded (x 3) in 12 non-neuropathic diabetic subjects, 15 diabetic subjects with established neuropathy and 16 age-matched normal control subjects, before and after exercise to 80% age/sex predicted maximum heart rate. Fixed sural electrodes were used. Subcutaneous temperature was recorded by a needle thermocouple placed near the sural nerve. Sural sensory conduction velocity increased significantly after exercise in normal subjects (p〈0.01, mean increase 5.07 m/s) and non-neuropathic diabetic subjects (p〈0.02, mean increase 3.99 m/s) but not in neuropathic subjects (mean increase 0.99 m/s). Subcutaneous temperature rose significantly in normal subjects (p〈0.01, mean increase 2.07°C) and non-neuropathic diabetic subjects (p〈0.001, mean increase 2.52 °C) but not in neuropathic subjects (mean increase 0.15 °C). However, sural sensory conduction velocity increased by 1.2 m · s−1. °C−1 following direct warming of the limb in six neuropathic subjects which was comparable to that of normal and non-neuropathic subjects (1.49 and 1.48 m · s−1. °C−1). The impairment of exercise conduction increment in diabetic neuropathy suggests impaired nerve blood flow in diabetic neuropathy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy ; sural nerve ; nerve blood flow ; epineurial vessel photography ; fluorescein angiography ; arterio-venous shunting ; vasa nervorum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary New techniques of sural nerve photography and fluorescein angiography which are able to provide an index of nerve blood flow have been developed. Under local anaesthetic, 3 cm of sural nerve was exposed at the ankle using an operating microscope. Without disturbing the epineurium, vessels were identified and photographed at a standard magnification (× 30). These were independently graded by an ophthalmologist not otherwise involved with the study. Fluorescein angiography was then carried out on the exposed nerve. The fluorescein appearance time and intensity of fluorescence were quantified, using computer analysis of digitised images. Thirteen subjects with chronic sensory motor neuropathy, five non-neuropathic diabetic and nine normal control subjects were studied. The mean epineurial vessel pathology score of the neuropathic group was significantly higher than the combined normal control and non-neuropathic diabetic groups (p 〈0.01). Direct epineurial arteriovenous shunting was observed in six neuropathic and one non-neuropathic diabetic patients and not in any of the normal control subjects. The nerve fluorescein appearance time was significantly delayed in subjects with chronic sensory motor neuropathy (51.5 ± 12 s) compared to both normal (34.7 ± 9 s, p 〈0.01) and non-neuropathic diabetic subjects (33.4 ± 11 s, p 〈0.025). The mean intensity of fluorescence at 96, 252 and 576 s, was significantly lower in subjects with chronic sensory motor neuropathy compared with both of the other groups (p 〈0.05). The epineurial vessel pathology score was significantly related to reduced sural (p 〈0.01) and peroneal (p 〈0.001) nerve conduction velocities, elevated vibration (p 〈0.01) and thermal (p 〈0.001) perception and the severity of retinopathy (p 〈0.002). The fluorescein appearance time was significantly related to reduced sural sensory (p 〈0.02) conduction velocity, elevated vibration (p 〈0.01) perception and epineurial vessel (p 〈0.002) pathology score, but it failed to relate to peroneal motor (p = 0.06) conduction velocity, thermal (p = 0.1) perception and the severity of retinopathy (p = 0.3). Intensity of fluorescence was significantly related to fluorescein appearance time (at 96 s, p 〈0.001; at 576 s, p 〈0.05) but did not relate to measures of neuropathic severity. These techniques have enabled us to observe that epineurial vessel anatomy is abnormal and that nerve blood flow is impaired in subjects with chronic sensory motor neuropathy. In addition epineurial arterio-venous shunting may be a feature of diabetic neuropathy. These techniques may further be applied to study nerve blood flow in early diabetic neuropathy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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