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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Key words Aldose reductase (AR) ; Antidiuresis ; Diuresis ; Na+/Cl-/betaine cotransporter (BGT) ; Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) ; Non-radioactive in situ hybridization ; Osmoregulation ; Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The effect of changes in medullary extracellular tonicity on mRNA expression for aldose reductase (AR), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), Na+/Cl–/betaine (BGT) and Na+/myo-inositol (SMIT) cotransporter in different kidney zones was studied using Northern blot analysis and non-radioactive in situ hybridization in four groups of rats: controls, acute diuresis (the loop diuretic furosemide was administered), chronic diuresis (5 days of diuresis), and antidiuresis [5 days of diuresis followed by 24 h deamino-Cys1,d-Arg8 vasopressin (dDAVP)]. Acute administration of the loop diuretic furosemide significantly reduced AR, SMIT and BGT gene expression in the inner and outer medulla compared with controls. Administration of dDAVP to chronically diuretic rats raised the expression of these three mRNAs in the inner but not the outer medulla compared with the chronically diuretic rats. None of these alterations in medullary tonicity significantly changed SDH expression. The in situ hybridization studies showed AR, BGT and SMIT mRNAs to be expressed in both epithelial and non-epithelial cells of the outer and inner medulla. The various cell types (epithelial, endothelial and interstitial cells) differed in their expression pattern and intensity of AR, SDH, BGT and SMIT mRNA, but the inner medullary cells responded uniformly to a decrease in extracellular tonicity with a reduction, and to an increase with enhancement of their AR, BGT and SMIT expression.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Key words Antidiuresis ; Diuresis ; Heat shock proteins ; Ionic strength ; Organic osmolytes ; Osmotic stress ; Renal medulla
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Cells of the renal medulla, which are exposed under normal physiological conditions to widely fluctuating extracellular solute concentrations, respond to hypertonic stress by accumulating the organic osmolytes glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, sorbitol and free amino acids. Increased intracellular contents of these osmolytes are achieved by a combination of increased uptake (myo-inositol and betaine) and synthesis (sorbitol, possibly GPC), decreased degradation (GPC) and reduced osmolyte release. In the medulla of the concentrating kidney, accumulation of organic osmolytes, which do not perturb cell function even at high concentrations, allows the maintenance of ”normal” intracellular concentrations of inorganic electrolytes. Adaptation to decreasing extracellular solute concentrations, e.g. diuresis, is achieved primarily by activation of pathways allowing the efflux of organic osmolytes, and secondarily by inactivation of production (sorbitol) and uptake (betaine, myo-inositol) and stimulation of degradation (GPC). Apart from modulation of the osmolyte content, osmolality-dependent reorganization of the cytoskeleton and expression of specific stress proteins (heat shock proteins) may be further, as yet poorly characterized, components of the regulatory systems involved in the adaptation of medullary cells to osmotic stress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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