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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer surveillance system ; cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia ; cutaneous melanoma ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulated by a recent report from a Norwegian pathology institute of an excess risk of melanoma among women with cervical neoplasia, we analyzed the relevant data from a population-based cancer registry serving western Washington State (United States). Among 11,693 women diagnosed with cervicalintra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) between 1974 and 1989 who were followed-up for at least a year, 14 cases of cutaneous melanoma were identified, in comparison with 13.7 cases expected (relative risk=1.0,95 percent confidence interval=0.5-1.7) based on the rates of melanoma among all women who resided in this area. While these results are at odds with those recently reported from the pathology institute, they are similar to those obtained in previous cancer-registry studies in several countries, which found little or no excess occurrence of melanoma following cervical cancer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Breast neoplasms ; menopausal status ; second primary neoplasms ; United States ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: To evaluate predictors of contralateral breast cancer risk, we examined data from a nested case-control study of second primary cancers among a cohort of women in western Washington (United States) diagnosed with breast cancer during 1978 through 1990 and identified through a population-based cancer registry. Cases included all women in the cohort who subsequently developed contralateral breast cancer at least six months after the initial diagnosis, but prior to 1992 (n=234). Controls were sampled randomly from the cohort, matched to cases on age, stage, and year of initial breast cancer diagnosis. Information on potential risk factors for second primary cancer was obtained through medical record abstractions and physician questionnaires. Women who were postmenopausal due to a bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., a surgical menopause) at initial breast cancer diagnosis had a reduction in contralateral breast cancer risk compared with premenopausal women (matched odds ratio [mOR]=0.25, 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=0.09–0.68), whereas no reduction in risk was noted among postmenopausal women who had had a natural menopause (mOR=0.90, CI=0.39–2.09). Among postmenopausal women, there was a suggestion of a lower risk associated with relatively high parity (2+). A family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk (mOR=1.96, CI=1.22–5.15) and varied little by menopausal status. Having an initial tumor with a lobular component (c.f. a ductal histology) was not related strongly to risk (mOR=1.47, CI=0.79–2.74). The results of the present and earlier studies argue that we have limited ability to predict the occurrence of a contralateral breast tumor. Better predictors will be required before diagnostic and preventive interventions can be targeted to subgroups of patients with unilateral breast cancer.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer ; census ; epidemiology ; methodology ; marital status ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In registry-based population studies on marital status in relation to cancer, incidence rates sometimes have been calculated using marital status-specific populations that have been estimated by interpolation and extrapolation from census data as a denominator. Alternatively, other cancers from the same registry have been used to estimate the proportion of the population in each marital-status category in the calculation of the relative risk (RR) of a given cancer. Using cancer registry data from four United States populations for the years 1979–87, we compared the relative incidence estimated using each of the two methods. For selected cancers diagnosed during 1979–81, the age-adjusted risks of never-married Black persons were 1.5 to 2.2 times those of married persons when the population size was estimated from census data. The corresponding RRs were 0.7 to 1.1 when the ‘control’ cancers were used. Among Whites, the differences between the two methods were about 20 to 30 percent. For both races, the difference between the methods was greater still for the years for which we relied on extrapolation to estimate the population (1981–87). The differences between the risk estimates from the two methods may be related to underenumeration in the census, inconsistent definitions of marital status between cancer registries and the census, errors in the extrapolation of the population, and/or the possible association of the incidence of ‘control’ cancers with marital status. In the US, while each method has some potential for bias, we believe that the likelihood of bias is relatively greater using the censusbased method.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: China ; Hawaii ; Japan ; migrant studies ; the Philippines ; thyroid neoplasms ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We compared incidence rates of primary cancer of the thyroid among United States-born and foreign-born Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the US with rates among US-born Whites. Thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1973 and 1986 occurring among individuals 15 to 84 years of age residing in western Washington state, the San Francisco-Oakland (California) area, or the state of Hawaii were included in the analysis. Population estimates by age, gender, ethnicity, and country of birth were obtained for these areas from the US Bureau of the Census. Filipino women born in the Philippines had 3.2 (95 percent confidence interval=2.7–3.8) times the rate of thyroid cancer of US-born White women, while US-born Filipino women were not at any increased risk. Philippine-born Filipino men also had a relatively high rate of thyroid cancer (relative risk [RR]=2.6), more so than US-born Filipino men (RR=1.5). Among Japanese, risk of thyroid cancer varied by birthplace, but the direction of the association differed by gender and by histologic type of cancer. No clear association with birthplace was noted among Chinese men or women. These data suggest that persons residing in one or more regions from which Filipino-Americans migrated have been exposed to environmental influences that have increased their subsequent risk of thyroid cancer.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Asian-Americans ; China ; Japan ; migrants ; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; Philippines ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino residents of the United States to obtain further clues about the etiology of the disease. The age, race, and birthplace of residents of Hawaii, San Francisco/Oakland (California), and western Washington who had received a diagnosis of NHL during the period 1973–86 were obtained from population-based cancer registries, and a special tabulation from the 1980 Census was used to estimate the number of person-years at risk for each category of resident. The incidence of NHL in each of the Asian groups examined was 35 to 85 percent that of US-born Whites. However, there was no consistent trend of increasing incidence with increasing generation of residence in any of the groups. In Asian-Americans, the risk of small cell lymphocytic and plasmacytoid lymphoma was 10 to 85 percent that of Whites, although no clear trends of risk with generation of residence in the US were observed. They also were at a reduced risk of follicular lymphoma, and in Chinese and Japanese persons, the risk was lower in first generation than in later generation migrants (Chinese: Asian-born relative risk [RR]=0.11, US-born, RR=0.84; Japanese: Asian-born, RR=0.15, US-born, RR 0.36). The risk of diffuse lymphoma was similar in Chinese-and Japanese-Americans and US-born Whites. We conclude that, with the exception of follicular lymphoma, the basis for the relatively low incidence of NHL in Asian-Americans does not lie in exposures or characteristics that differ between the migrants themselves and their descendants.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Liver neoplasms ; incidence rates ; migrants ; Asian Americans ; Chinese Americans ; Japanese Americans ; United States
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The incidence of primary liver cancer in Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino migrants to the United States and their descendants is compared with that of United States-born Whites. Incident liver cancer cases were ascertained between 1973 and 1986 from population-based cancer registries serving the San Francisco/Oakland (CA) metropolitan area, 13 counties of western Washington, and Hawaii. The population of these three areas, with regard to age, race, and country of birth, was estimated from a special tabulation of the 1980 US census. Rates of primary liver cancer were higher for men born in Asia than Asian men born in the US, who, in turn, had higher rates than did US Whites (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 26.5 and 9.8; Japanese, 16.5 and 6.6; Filipinos, 11.4 and 6.5; US Whites, 3.4). Among Asian American women, the trends were not as consistent (respective annual rates per 100,000: Chinese, 2.2 and 3.7; Japanese, 1.9 and 1.4; Filipino, 2.6 and 0; US Whites, 1.1). In general, liver cancer incidence among Asian Americans was lower than among residents of Asia. These findings are compatible with substantial variation among Asians in the prevalence of one or more etiologic factors for liver cancer, such as hepatitis-B infection and aflatoxin consumption, in relation to residence and place of birth.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Tryptophan ; Aggressive behavior ; Motor activity ; Social isolation ; Dopamine ; Serotonin ; Tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study examined the interaction of dietary tryptophan (TRP) and differential housing on territorial-induced aggression, locomotor activity, and monoamine neurochemistry in mice. Groups of male CF-1 mice were singly-housed or group-housed and administered a semisynthetic basal diet supplemented with TRP (0.25–1.0%). Behavioral measures were taken at various intervals up to 2 weeks after dietary administration was instituted. Separate groups of mice were given the same experimental treatment and sacrificed for whole brain determination of the monoamines and their metabolites. Isolated mice were consistently more aggressive than grouped animals, suggesting that territorial-induced aggression is synergistic with intermale aggression based on social isolation. The combination of isolation and 0.50% TRP was particularly effective in producing increases in aggression that reached maximal levels after 10 days of diet administration. However, motor activity of singly-housed mice was unaffected by TRP, while that of grouped mice was decreased after 5 days of 0.50% TRP. By day 14 of administration behavioral changes tended to return to baseline levels. Neurochemical measures indicated increased DA and 5-HT turnover in isolated mice, with the 5-HT system most affected by dietary TRP. Because housing conditions were a prominent factor in the aggression and neurochemistry, the results suggest the involvement of both transmitter systems in this behavior. However, there were no changes in monoamine turnover that could account for the development of behavioral tolerance.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: 5-Hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptors ; 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptors ; Dopamine ; Substantia nigra ; Ventral tegmental area ; Nucleus accumbens ; Striatum ; Behavior ; Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several lines of evidence have suggested a link between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the brain. The interpretation of much of these early data needs careful reevaluation in light of the recent understanding of the plethora of serotonin receptor subtypes, their distribution in the brain and the new findings with more selective serotonin antagonists. Electrophysiological, biochemical and behavioral evidence obtained using highly selective antagonists of the 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptor subtypes, MDL 100,907 or MDL 73,147EF, respectively, supports the thesis that serotonin modulates the dopaminergic system. This modulation is most evident when the dopaminergic system has been activated.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Precursor amino acids ; Diet supplements ; Aggressive behavior ; Motor activity ; Norepinephrine ; Dopamine ; Serotonin ; Tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Male albino mice were maintained on a semisynthetic 12% casein protein diet for 2 weeks, then switched to diets modified by the addition of a 4% L-amino acid supplement (L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine, and L-tryptophan) or 4% casein (control). Territorial-induced aggressive behavior increased following 1 week on the amino acid supplements, especially after tyrosine, but an apparent tolerance developed to these effects after 5 weeks on the amino acid supplements. Locomotor activity also increased following 1 week on the supplements, most notably after phenylalanine alone or in combination with tyrosine, and these effects tended to persist after 5 weeks on the supplements. Endogenous whole brain levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan showed no tolerance to increased concentrations of brain catecholamines and indoleamines over the 5-week period, and no clear relation between the concentrations of these monoamines and the behavioral changes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Guinea-pig trachealis muscle ; Dopamine ; Neuronal uptake ; α and β-adrenoceptors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of dopamine (DA) were studied on guinea-pig isolated tracheal chains. At a low concentration (10−6M) DA occasionally produced a small contraction; this was followed by a dose-dependent relaxation 3×10−6–3×10−3 M). On a molar basis, DA was about 40 times less potent than noradrenaline (NA) in relaxing tracheal chains, and about 2700 times less potent than isoprenaline (ISO). The maximum degree of relaxation obtained with each drug was the same. Pretreatment of the guinea-pig with reserpine (5 mg/kg) resulted in a 3-fold shift of the DA curve to the right without concomitantly affecting the ISO doseresponse curve. Reserpine completely abolished the relaxant effects of tyramine, but a small contractile response remained. Desipramine (DMI), at a concentration of 10−5 M, caused a 4-fold shift of the DA curve to th right. The same concentration of DMI resulted in a shift to the left of the NA dose-response curve by about 8-fold. Benztropine (10−5 M) and haloperidol (10−5 M and 3×10−5 M) did not affect the DA dose-response curve. The DA-induced relaxation was inhibited by propranolol (10−8–10−6 M) in a dose-dependent manner. The higher concentrations of propranolol (10−7 and 10−6 M) unmasked the contractile effect of DA. In the presence of propranolol, phentolamine (10−5 M) abolished the contractile effect of DA. It is concluded that DA has both direct and indirect actions on guinea-pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effects of DA are predominantly due to a direct action on smooth muscle β-adrenoceptors, with a component due to release of NA from adrenergic nerves. The contractile effects, which under normal conditions are masked by the relaxant effect of DA, are mediated by functional α-adrenoceptors. There is no evidence for either specific dopaminergic nerves, uptake mechanisms or receptors in guinea-pig trachealis muscle.
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