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  • Acetylcholine receptor  (1)
  • Drosophila melanogaster  (1)
  • Polymer and Materials Science
  • 1975-1979  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-3297
    Keywords: minority mating advantage ; Drosophila melanogaster ; mating behavior ; male courtship cues ; habituation by female
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Alleles at the brown locus ofDrosophila melanogaster combined with homozygous scarlet provide a useful model to demonstrate minority advantage of males in mating. Heterozygotes with orange (O) eyes equal in numbers to homozygotes with red (R) eyes (10∶10 in both sexes) displayed no bias favoring either eye color, but each eye color was favored when males occurred in a minority ratio (2∶18). In direct observation of single females with equal numbers of males (3∶3) as controls,O males courted less and more slowly thanR males, but females mated with either type without bias. When unequal (4∶1), the minority males were successful at more than twice the frequency expected. Whether successful or not, the minority males did not change their level of courtship, and thus cannot be said to compensate for their frequency in any way. The time between first courtship and mating was less for the minority males than for the majority males. We discard the hypothesis that the minority male will be accepted immediately or ahead of a majority male, because the opposite tended to occur: that if a minority male courted first he was less likely to be successful than if he waited until the majority courted. Our results then are in conformity with the hypothesis that a female samples males and their courtship cues, thus becoming habituated to the majority of the first courting male, but she accepts a male with a cue different from that which she originally detected but avoided. That male is most often the minority.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: 2D NMR spectra have been measured at variable temperatures between -100°C and +110°C in a sample of melt crystallized deuterated polyethylene (PE). The line shape could be decomposed into a central part originating from deuterons in the amorphous regions and outer parts from crystalline regions of PE. The “NMR crystallinity” determined from this separation was 72% in agreement with the X-ray crystallinity of 74%. Changes of the crystalline NMR line shape were interperted in terms of oscillations around the chain axis, the r.m.s. oscillation amplitude varying from 5° at 40°C to 12° at 110°C. The central part of the NMR line shape indicates the existence of a “narrow” and a “medium” component due to different motional processes in the amorphous regions.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: p-Nitrophenyl diazonium fluoroborate ; Cholinergic neurons ; Acetylcholine receptor ; Acetylcholinesterase ; Affinity labelling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electrophysiological experiments were done to investigate the effect of p-nitrophenyl diazonium fluoroborate (p-NPD) on motor endplates of the frog's m. cutaneus pectoris. The compound has no direct depolarizing effect on the postsynaptic membrane and stabilizes it irreversibly when added to the bath. Longtime iontophoretical applications of p-NPD produce a biphasic effect: initially a potentiation of the depolarizations due to acetylcholine (ACh) (both iontophoretically applied and presynaptically liberated), and subsequently an inhibition of the response to ACh. When the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is inactivated previously, only the inhibiting effect of the compound is demonstrable. The association constant of p-NPD to purified AChE and to membrane fragments of electroplax was determined by biochemical methods. The compound's affinity to the AChE was found to be about 20 times greater than to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Iontophoretical application of p-NPD to cholinergic neurons in the hippocampal cortex of the cat also produced the characteristic biphasic effect on ACh-induced activity of these investigated neurons. The results suggest that the biphasic effect depends on the capacity of p-NPD to combine with both the AChE and the AChR. The AChE is first inhibited with low concentrations thereby potentiating the ACh response. At higher concentrations the AChR's are progressively inhibited too, thereby diminishing the excitability of the postsynaptic membrane up to a complete block.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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