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  • Articles  (2)
  • E. coli  (1)
  • Hybrid identification  (1)
  • Molecular evolution  (1)
  • 1
    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  GMS Hygiene and Infection Control; VOL: 8; DOC04 /20130429/
    Publication Date: 2013-07-11
    Description: Background: Paromomycin is used for selective bowel decontamination (SBD) in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation in many hospitals, but there are no published resistance data for this compound in the recent medical literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of paromomycin against the common intestinal bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa .Methods: 94 E. coli isolates and 77 P. aeruginosa isolates derived from clinical specimens were tested by broth microdilution against paromomycin and amikacin, respectively, following the CLSI recommendations for testing amikacin.Results: 86 of 94 E. coli isolates (91%) and 71 of 77 P. aeruginosa isolates (92%) showed in vitro susceptibility to amikacin (MIC90 for both compounds: 16 µg/ml, range: 1-32 µg/ml for E. coli and 1-〉128 µg/ml for P. aeruginosa ). Paromomycin was active against 83/94 E. coli isolates (88%; MIC90: 32 µg/ml, range: 2-〉128 µg/ml), but showed poor in vitro activity against P. aeruginosa (3/77 isolates susceptible [4%]; MIC90: 〉128 µg/ml, range: 2-〉128 µg/ml).Conclusion: If SBD with inclusion of an aminoglycoside antibiotic is applied, paromomycin should not be used unless local resistance data provide evidence of a sufficient in vitro activity of this compound against P. aeruginosa .
    Description: Hintergrund: Paromomycin wird in zahlreichen Zentren bei Patienten, die vor einer Knochenmarktransplantation stehen, zur selektiven Darmdekontamination (SDD) eingesetzt. Dennoch findet sich in der Literatur keine Angaben der Resistenzlage Gram-negativer Bakterien gegenüber diesem Aminoglykosid-Antibiotikum. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, die In-vitro-Aktivität von Paromomycin gegen die typisch im Dickdarm habitierende Bakterien E. coli und P. aeruginosa zu bestimmen.Methoden: 94 E. coli -Isolate und 77 P. aeruginosa -Isolate, welche aus klinischem Probenmaterial isoliert wurden, wurden mittels Mikrodilutionsverfahren gegenüber Paromomycin und Amikacin getestet. Es wurden die CLSI Empfehlungen für Amikacin herangezogen. Ergebnisse: 86 von 94 E. coli -Isolaten (91%) und 71 von 77 P. aeruginosa -Isolaten (92%) zeigten In-vitro-Empfindlichkeit gegenüber Amikacin (MIC90 für beide Antibiotika: 16 µg/ml, range: 1-32 µg/ml für E. coli und 1-〉128 µg/ml für P. aeruginosa ). Paromomycin war aktiv gegenüber 83/94 E. coli -Isolaten (88%; MIC90: 32 µg/ml, range: 2-〉128 µg/ml), zeigte aber schwache In-vitro-Wirksamkeit gegenüber P. aeruginosa (3/77 Isolate empfindlich [4%]; MIC90: 〉128 µg/ml, range: 2-〉128 µg/ml).Schlussfolgerung: Sollte eine SDD routinemäßig mit Einschluss eines Aminoglykosid Antibiotikums durchgeführt werden, sollte Paromomycin nicht eingesetzt warden, außer bei Vorliegen lokaler Resistenzkenntnis für die In-vitro-Effektivität von Paromomycin gegenüber P. aeruginosa .
    Keywords: paromomycin ; P. aeruginosa ; E. coli ; minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ; selective bowel decontamination (SBD) ; Paromomycin ; P. aeruginosa ; E. coli ; Minimale Hemmkonzentration (MHK) ; Selektive Darm-Dekontamination (SDD) ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: article
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Hybrid identification ; Molecular evolution ; Repetitive DNA elements ; Satellite DNA ; Solanaceae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Species-specific repetitive DNA probes are a useful tool for the molecular identification of somatic hybrids. Therefore, the distribution of three repetitive DNA elements of Solanum was investigated in Solanum wild species, Solanum breeding lines, and in more distantly related species of the genera Lycopersicon, Nicotiana, and Datura. The clone pSCH15, obtained from S. circaeifolium, represents a new 168-bp repetitive element; it shows 73–79% sequence similarity to repetitive elements of S. brevidens and Lycopersicon species. The 163-bp element in pSBH6, cloned from S. bulbocastanum, turned out to be very similar (95% sequence homology) to the Lycopersicon element pLEG15/TGRI previously regarded to be present only in species of the genus Lycopersicon and in S. lycopersicoides. Lower sequence similarity of approximately 80% was observed to repetitive elements of S. brevidens which are organized differently. The repeats exhibited different degrees of specificity: by Southern hybridization the element represented by the clone pSBH6 could be detected in almost all Solanum species investigated here but only after long exposure to X-ray film. The previously described “Solanum-specific” element represented by the clone pSA287 was also found, although in a very low copy number, in Lycopersicon esculentum. Therefore, detection of the repetitive elements pSA287 and pSBH6 in those species in which the respective repeat is less represented depends on exposure time. In contrast, the element pSCH15 is prominently present only in a small number of Solanum wild species and — to some extent — in the diploid breeding lines as revealed after long exposure. Use of these repeated elements for the identification of specific genomes in protoplast-fusion hybrids between Solanum wild species and Solanum breeding lines, or between two breeding lines, was evaluated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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