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  • ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY  (2)
  • ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS  (1)
  • IN-VIVO  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; T-CELLS ; MOUSE ; transactivation ; SMOOTH-MUSCLE-CELLS ; hematology ; ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY ; PAR1 ; REDUCED ANTICOAGULANT ACTIVITY ; THROMBIN
    Abstract: The cytoprotective effects of activated protein C (aPC) are well established. In contrast, the receptors and signaling mechanism through which aPC conveys cytoprotection in various cell types remain incompletely defined. Thus, within the renal glomeruli, aPC preserves endothelial cells via a protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and endothelial protein C receptor-dependent mechanism. Conversely, the signaling mechanism through which aPC protects podocytes remains unknown. While exploring the latter, we identified a novel aPC/PAR-dependent cytoprotective signaling mechanism. In podocytes, aPC inhibits apoptosis through proteolytic activation of PAR-3 independent of endothelial protein C receptor. PAR-3 is not signaling competent itself as it requires aPC-induced heterodimerization with PAR-2 (human podocytes) or PAR-1 (mouse podocytes). This cytoprotective signaling mechanism depends on caveolin-1 dephosphorylation. In vivo aPC protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced podocyte injury and proteinuria. Genetic deletion of PAR-3 impairs the nephroprotective effect of aPC, demonstrating the crucial role of PAR-3 for aPC-dependent podocyte protection. This novel, aPC-mediated interaction of PARs demonstrates the plasticity and cell-specificity of cytoprotective aPC signaling. The evidence of specific, dynamic signaling complexes underlying aPC-mediated cytoprotection may allow the design of cell type specific targeted therapies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22117049
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELL-PROLIFERATION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; FACTOR-KAPPA-B ; DIABETIC-NEPHROPATHY ; ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY ; STAGE EMBRYONIC-DEVELOPMENT ; LECTIN-LIKE DOMAIN ; COLD-SHOCK DOMAIN ; CHEMICAL ANOXIA ; TUBULAR CELLS
    Abstract: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the leading cause of ARF. A pathophysiologic role of the coagulation system in renal IRI has been established, but the functional relevance of thrombomodulin (TM)-dependent activated protein C (aPC) generation and the intracellular targets of aPC remain undefined. Here, we investigated the role of TM-dependent aPC generation and therapeutic aPC application in a murine renal IRI model and in an in vitro hypoxia and reoxygenation (HR) model using proximal tubular cells. In renal IRI, endogenous aPC levels were reduced. Genetic or therapeutic reconstitution of aPC efficiently ameliorated renal IRI independently of its anticoagulant properties. In tubular cells, cytoprotective aPC signaling was mediated through protease activated receptor-1- and endothelial protein C receptor-dependent regulation of the cold-shock protein Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1). The mature 50 kD form of YB-1 was required for the nephro- and cytoprotective effects of aPC in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Reduction of mature YB-1 and K48-linked ubiquitination of YB-1 was prevented by aPC after renal IRI or tubular HR injury. aPC preserved the interaction of YB-1 with the deubiquitinating enzyme otubain-1 and maintained expression of otubain-1, which was required to reduce K48-linked YB-1 ubiquitination and to stabilize the 50 kD form of YB-1 after renal IRI and tubular HR injury. These data link the cyto- and nephroprotective effects of aPC with the ubiquitin-proteasome system and identify YB-1 as a novel intracellular target of aPC. These insights may provide new impetus for translational efforts aiming to restrict renal IRI.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26015455
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