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  • ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE  (3)
Keywords
  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; QUALITY ; RISK-FACTORS ; TARGET ; CARE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; STRESS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; DATABASE ; DELIVERY ; POPULATIONS ; INFANTS ; OUTCOMES ; CHILDREN ; PREVALENCE ; CONSUMPTION ; SMOKERS ; asthma ; REGISTRY ; REGRESSION ; INCREASE ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; analysis ; methods ; PREGNANCY ; LUNG-FUNCTION ; RISK-FACTOR ; ENGLAND ; PUBLIC-HEALTH ; COTININE LEVELS ; INCREASES ; NOV ; outcome ; pregnant women ; PREGNANT-WOMEN ; CIGARETTE ; socioeconomic status ; FETAL ; PARTNER ; MATERNAL CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; PLACENTAL ABRUPTION ; psychosocial stress ; RESPIRATORY-FUNCTION
    Abstract: Objectives: Smoking during pregnancy greatly increases the risk of adverse fetal outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and to identify social, behavioural and preventable perinatal risk factors. Study design: This study was based on a national registry, acquired in the 2005 German Perinatal Quality Survey, which contains data on 99.31% of deliveries in Germany. Methods: The database draws on prenatal and perinatal data on 668,085 newborns and 647,392 mothers at 917 maternity clinics. Bivariate methods and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Thirteen percent of pregnant women smoked at least one cigarette per day after becoming aware of their pregnancy. Median cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers was 10 cigarettes per day. The prevalence of smoking was higher than average among women of low socio-economic status (20%), women without a partner (23%) and pregnant women under 20 years of age (34%). Multiparous women and women suffering from psychosocial stress smoked more than the respective reference groups. In addition, pregnant smokers displayed major deficits in terms of prenatal care. Conclusions: This study identified risk groups with above-average smoking prevalence during pregnancy. These risk groups are key target populations for preventive measures. (c) 2008 The Royal Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18632123
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPOSURE ; WORKERS ; QUALITY ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; SECONDHAND SMOKE ; PUBS ; AREAS ; RESTRICTIONS
    Abstract: Introduction: The present study examined the reduction in exposure to tobacco smoke in German hospitality venues following the implementation of a partial smoking ban by measuring the indoor air concentration of PM(2.5) in 2005 and 2009, that is, before and after the legislation was implemented. Methods: The concentration of respirable suspended particles (PM(2.5)) in the indoor air of German hospitality venues was measured using a laser photometer (AM510). The prelegislation sample from 2005 included 80 venues of which 58 could be revisited in 2009. After replenishment, the postlegislation sample consisted of 79 venues. Results: Compared with the prelegislation measurement, the concentration of PM2.5 in hospitality venues was reduced significantly after introduction of the smoke-free legislation. The median mass concentration of PM(2.5) was reduced by 87.1% in coffee bars, by 88.7% in restaurants, by 66.3% in bars, and by 90.8% in discotheques. Notably, legal exemptions to the smoking ban are an issue: At the postlegislation measurement in 2009, the mass concentrations of PM(2.5) were substantially higher in venues allowing smoking in the whole venue or in a designated smoking room than in completely smoke-free venues. Conclusions: The German smoke-free legislation significantly reduced the levels of respirable suspended particles in the indoor air of hospitality venues, benefiting the health of employees and patrons alike
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21622497
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  • 3
    Keywords: Germany ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; WORKERS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; smoking ; SMOKERS ; ADULTS ; INCREASE ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; INTERVAL ; AGREEMENT ; PASSIVE SMOKING ; ACCEPTABILITY ; BARS ; COTININE ; FREE POLICIES ; populations survey ; REGULATIONS ; SECONDHAND SMOKE ; smoke-free restaurants ; smoking ban
    Abstract: Background and objective: Every year over 3300 non-smokers in Germany die from diseases caused by passive smoking. It was the aim of this study to obtain countrywide representative opinions about a smoking ban in restaurants. Material and methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of the population, 2 008 men and women aged 16 years or over. Opinions on smoking ban in restaurants were analysed by bivariate and multivariate methods with regard to potential influencing factors such as smoking status and sociodemographic status. Results: The majority of those questioned, namely 50% (95% confidence interval 57 - 61), wished for a smoking ban in restaurants. This represents an increase of 6% compared with the preceding year. While over 82% of neversmokers and 71% of previous smokers were in favor of a smoking ban, agreement for a ban among smokers averaged 25%, depending on the amount smoked. Agreement was especially common among women, the elderly and married persons. Three of four Germans said that they would continue to go to restaurants as frequently after smoking had been banned there. Conclusion: This is the first scientific study of opinions among the population on the smoking ban in restaurants of Germany. The current average approval rate for a ban was comparable to that among other nations. An overwhelming majority of the population would welcome a smoking ban and would, after its introduction, visit restaurants as often as previously
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16981076
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