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  • EPIC  (21)
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  • 1
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; TRIAL ; hormone ; HEALTH ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; OBESITY ; risk factors ; COUNTRIES ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; EPIC ; EPIC study ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MASS INDEX ; PH ; WEIGHT ; body weight ; fat distribution ; HEIGHT ; ADIPOSITY ; breast neoplasm ; HORMONE-REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; METAANALYSIS
    Abstract: The evidence for anthropometric factors influencing breast cancer risk is accumulating, but uncertainties remain concerning the role of fat distribution and potential effect modifiers. We used data from 73,542 premenopausal and 103,344 postmenopausal women from 9 European countries, taking part in the EPIC study. RRs from Cox regression models were calculated, using measured height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences; categorized by cohort wide quintiles; and expressed as continuous variables, adjusted for study center, age and other risk factors. During 4.7 years of follow-up, 1,879 incident invasive breast cancers were identified. In postmenopausal women, current HRT modified the body size-breast cancer association. Among nonusers, weight, BMI and hip circumference were positively associated with breast cancer risk (all P-trend less than or equal to 0.002); obese women (BMI 〉 30) had a 31% excess risk compared to women with BMI 〈 25. Among HRT users, body measures were inversely but nonsignificantly associated with breast cancer. Excess breast cancer risk with HRT was particularly evident among lean women. Pooled RRs per height increment of 5 cm were 1.05 (95% CI 1.00-1.16) in premenopausal and 1.10 (95% CI 1.05-1.16) in postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women, hip circumference was the only other measure significantly related to breast cancer (P-trend = 0.03), after accounting for BMI. In postmenopausal women not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor of breast cancer, while abdominal fat assessed as waist-hip ratio or waist circumference was not related to excess risk when adjusted for BMI. Among premenopausal women, weight and BMI showed nonsignificant inverse associations with breast cancer. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15252848
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; MODEL ; MODELS ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISKS ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; BINDING ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ESTRADIOL ; SERUM ; SINGLE ; DEFICIENCY ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; MAMMARY-GLAND ; ESTROGEN ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; TESTS ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM-LEVELS ; ADRENAL ANDROGENS ; ESTROGEN PLUS PROGESTIN ; FEMALE NOBLE RATS ; HEALTHY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; HORMONE LEVELS ; ONE-YEAR PERIOD ; REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    Abstract: Background. Contrasting etiologic hypotheses about the role of endogenous sex steroids in breast cancer development among premenopausal women implicate ovarian androgen excess and progesterone deficiency, estrogen excess, estrogen and progesterone excess, and both an excess or lack of adrenal androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] or its sulfate [DHEAS]) as risk factors. We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort to examine associations among premenopausal serum concentrations of sex steroids and subsequent breast cancer risk. Methods: Levels of DHEAS, (Delta 4-)androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in single prediagnostic serum samples from 370 premenopausal women who subsequently developed breast cancer (case patients) and from 726 matched cancer-free control subjects. Levels of progesterone, estrone, and estradiol were also measured for the 285 case patients and 555 matched control subjects who had provided information about the day of menstrual cycle at blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks of breast cancer by quartiles of hormone concentrations. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Increased risks of breast cancer were associated with elevated serum concentrations of testosterone (odds ratio [OR] for highest versus lowest quartile = 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16 to 2.57; P-trend =.01), androstenedione (OR for highest versus lowest quartile = 1.569 95% CI = 1.05 to 2.32; P-trend =.01), and DHEAS (OR for highest versus lowest quartile = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.14; P-trend =.10) but not SHBG. Elevated serum progesterone concentrations were associated with a statistically significant reduction in breast cancer risk (OR for highest versus lowest quartile = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.98; P-trend =.06). The absolute risk of breast cancer for women younger than 40 followed up for 10 years was estimated at 2.6% for those in the highest quartile of serum testosterone versus 1.5% for those in the lowest quartile; for the highest and lowest quartiles of progesterone, these estimates were 1.7% and 2.6%, respectively. Breast cancer risk was not statistically significantly associated with serum levels
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15900045
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; COHORT ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; MEN ; COUNTRIES ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; RELATIVE RISK ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; LEVEL ; INTERVAL ; FRUITS ; fruits and vegetables ; prospective ; prospective study ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; CANCERS ; VARIABLES ; root vegetables ; SUBGROUPS ; upper aero-digestive cancer
    Abstract: Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998. During 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically verified incident squamous cell cancer (SCC) cases (255 males; 97 females) of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus were identified. Linear and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions were fitted on variables of intake of fruits and vegetables and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant inverse association with combined total fruits and vegetables intake (estimated relative risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.00 per 80 g/d of consumption), and nearly significant inverse associations in separate analyses with total fruits and total vegetables intake (RR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-1.02) and RR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) per 40 g/d of consumption). Overall, vegetable subgroups were not related to risk with the exception of intake of root vegetables in men. Restricted cubic spline regression did not improve the linear model fits except for total fruits and vegetables and total fruits with a significant decrease in risk at low intake levels (〈 120 g/d) for fruits. Dietary recommendations should consider the potential benefit of increasing fruits and vegetables consumption for reducing the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, particularly at low intake
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16841263
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; Germany ; PROSTATE ; COMMON ; COHORT ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; SAMPLE ; RELEASE ; RISK-FACTORS ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; hormone ; prevention ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; SNP ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; POPULATIONS ; genetic polymorphism ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CODE ; SINGLE ; VARIANT ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; LEVEL ; HAPLOTYPE ; HORMONES ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; CIRCULATING LEVELS ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; BASE-LINE CHARACTERISTICS ; COMMON VARIANT ; LUTEINIZING-HORMONE ; androgens ; ESTROGENS ; CONSORTIUM ; androstenedione ; Genetic ; COMMON VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background: Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). Methods: We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study ( NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids ( androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results: Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion: Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19640273
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; human ; VITRO ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; incidence ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ACIDS ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; fatty acids ; DIETARY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; RELATIVE RISK ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; SERUM PHOSPHOLIPIDS ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ASSOCIATIONS ; INTERVAL ; prospective ; MEAT INTAKE ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; fish consumption ; N-3
    Abstract: There is current interest in fish consumption and marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and breast cancer risk. Some in vitro and animal studies have suggested an inhibitory effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on breast cancer growth, but the results from epidemiological studies that have examined the association between fish consumption and breast cancer risk in humans are inconsistent. We examined fish consumption and breast cancer risk in 310,671 women aged between 25 and 70 yr at recruitment into the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The participants completed a dietary questionnaire between 1992-98 and were followed up for incidence of breast cancer for a median of 6.4 yr. Hazard ratio for breast cancer by intake of total and lean and fatty fish were estimated, stratified by study centre and adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. During follow-up, 4,776 invasive incident breast cancers were reported. No significant associations between intake of total fish and breast cancer risk were observed, hazard ratio (HR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.02; p = 0.28 per 10 g fish/day). When examining lean and ratty fish separately, we round a positive significant association only in the highest quintile for fatty fish (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26), but test for trend was not significant (p = 0.10). No associations with breast cancer risk were observed when the study participants were subdivided by menopausal status. Although the period of follow-up is relatively short, the results provide no evidence for an association between fish intake and breast cancer risk. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16470807
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; WOMEN ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; DIET ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; HETEROGENEITY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; PRODUCTS ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MEAT CONSUMPTION ; TEMPERATURE ; USA ; prospective ; RED MEAT ; UNIT ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; processed meat ; DAIRY-PRODUCTS ; breast cancer risk ; hazard ratio ; INVESTIGATE ; PROPORTION ; RECEPTOR STATUS ; DIFFERENT COUNTRIES ; LIFE-STYLE CHANGES
    Abstract: Background: A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk. Objective: We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: Between 1992 and 2003, information on diet was collected from 319,826 women. Disease hazard ratios were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Breast cancer cases (n = 7119) were observed during 8.8 y (median) of follow-up. No consistent association was found between breast cancer risk and the consumption of any of the food groups under study, when analyzed by both categorical and continuous exposure variable models. High processed meat consumption was associated with a modest increase in breast cancer risk in the categorical model (hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.07). Subgroup analyses suggested an association with butter consumption, limited to premenopausal women (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.53; highest compared with lowest quintile: P for trend = 0.21). Between-country heterogeneity was found for red meat (Q statistic = 18.03; P = 0.05) and was significantly explained (P = 0.023) by the proportion of meat cooked at high temperature. Conclusions: We have not consistently identified intakes of meat, eggs, or dairy products as risk factors for breast cancer. Future studies should investigate the possible role of high-temperature cooking in the relation of red meat intake with breast cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:602-12
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19491385
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; cohort study ; HISTORY ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; PLASMA ; ENERGY ; AGE ; smoking ; cancer risk ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; pancreatic cancer ; CALIBRATION ; DIETARY HABITS ; case-control study ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; WEIGHT ; GENDER ; USA ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; CANCER-RISK ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; WELL ; RESTRICTION
    Abstract: Many case-control studies have suggested that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk or pancreatic cancer, whereas cohort studies do not support such an association. We examined the associations of the consumption of. fruits and vegetables and their main subgroups with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is comprised of over 520,000 Subjects recruited from 10 European countries. The present study included 555 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases after an average follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center. and adjusted for total energy intake, weight, height, history of diabetes mellitus, and smoking status. Total consumption of fruit and vegetables, combined or separately, as well as subgroups of vegetables and fruits were unrelated to risk of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.92 (0.68-1.25) for total fruit and vegetables combined, 0.99 (0.73-1.33) for total vegetables, and 1.02 (0.77-1.36) for total fruits. Stratification by gender or smoking status, restriction to microscopically verified cases, and exclusion of the first 2 years of follow-up (lid not materially change the results. These results from a large European prospective cohort Suggest that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is not associated with decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19107929
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; RISK ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; WOMEN ; DIET ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; EPIC ; VEGETABLES ; antioxidants ; BETA-CAROTENE ; VITAMIN-E ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; RETINOL ; SUPPLEMENTATION ; FRUITS ; vitamin C ; prospective ; SUBGROUPS ; micronutrients ; WOMENS HEALTH ; Vitamin E
    Abstract: So far, studies on dietary antioxidant intake, including beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. Thus, we addressed this question in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up time of 8.8 years, 7,502 primary invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All analyses were run stratified by menopausal status at recruitment and, additionally, by smoking status, alcohol intake, use of exogenous hormones and use of dietary supplements. In the multivariate analyses, dietary intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E was not associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal [highest vs. lowest quintile: HR, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.85-1.27), 1.12 (0.92-1.36) and 1.11 (0.84-1.46), respectively] and postmenopausal women [0.93 (0.82-1.04), 0.98 (0.87-1.11) and 0.92 (0.77-1.11), respectively]. However, in postmenopausal women using exogenous hormones, high intake of beta-carotene [highest vs. lowest quintile; HR 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96), P (trend) 0.06] and vitamin C [0.88 (0.72-1.07), P (trend) 0.05] was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. In addition, dietary beta-carotene was associated with a decreased risk in postmenopausal women with high alcohol intake. Overall, dietary intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E was not related to breast cancer risk in neither pre- nor postmenopausal women. However, in subgroups of postmenopausal women, a weak protective effect between beta-carotene and vitamin E from food and breast cancer risk cannot be excluded
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19565333
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; validation ; BIOMARKERS ; hormone ; PLASMA ; COUNTRIES ; STABILITY ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; CALIBRATION ; carotenoids ; RE ; biomarker ; 24 h dietary recall ; 24-HOUR DIET RECALL ; EPIDEMIOLOGIC EVIDENCE ; food frequency questionnaires ; FRUITS ; fruits and vegetables ; SERUM CAROTENOIDS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16160702
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; RISK ; RISKS ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; DESIGN ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; cancer risk ; RECRUITMENT ; DIETARY ; VALIDITY ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; questionnaires ; VEGETABLES ; FOOD ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; duration ; pooled analysis ; NO ASSOCIATION ; DIETARY ASSESSMENT METHODS ; NITROGEN ; NUTRITION EPIC CALIBRATION ; RECALLS
    Abstract: Context The intake of vegetables and fruits has been thought to protect against breast cancer. Most of the evidence comes from case-control studies, but a recent pooled analysis of the relatively few published cohort studies suggests no significantly reduced breast cancer risk is associated with vegetable and fruit consumption. Objective To examine the relation between total and specific vegetable and fruit intake and the incidence of breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 285526 women between the ages of 25 and 70 years, participating in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, recruited from 8 of the 10 participating European countries. Participants completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998 and were followed up for incidence of cancer until 2002. Main Outcome Measures Relative risks for breast cancer by total and specific vegetable and fruit intake. Analyses were stratified by age at recruitment and study center. Relative risks were adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors. Results During 1486402 person-years (median duration of follow-up, 5.4 years), 3659 invasive incident breast cancer cases were reported. No significant associations between vegetable or fruit intake and breast cancer risk were observed. Relative risks for the highest vs the lowest quintile were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.14) for total vegetables, 1.09 (95% Cl, 0.94-1.25) for total fruit, and 1.05 (95% Cl, 0.92-1.20) for fruit and vegetable juices. For 6 specific vegetable subgroups no associations with breast cancer risk were observed either. Conclusion Although the period of follow-up is limited for now, the results suggest that total or specific vegetable and fruit intake is not associated with risk for breast cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15644545
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