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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; nutrition ; HEART-DISEASE ; ESTRADIOL ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ELDERLY-MEN ; PHASE ; HORMONES ; HORMONE LEVELS ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; older men ; cardiovascular diseases ; androgens ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; journals ; ADULT MEN ; ALL-CAUSE ; CRITICAL ILLNESS ; LOW SERUM TESTOSTERONE ; NHANES-III
    Abstract: The association of sex hormone levels with mortality over a median of 16 years of follow-up was evaluated in a prospective cohort study. The study included 1,114 US men who participated in phase 1 (1988-1991) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Study and had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality associated with a decrease in hormone concentration equal to the difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles of the sex hormone distributions were estimated by using proportional hazards regression. The hazard ratios associated with low free testosterone and low bioavailable testosterone levels were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.87) and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.02), respectively, for follow-up between baseline and year 9; they were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.72) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.72), respectively, for follow-up between year 9 and year 18. Men with low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may have a higher risk of mortality within 9 years of hormone measurement. Future studies should be conducted to fully characterize the association of low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations and mortality in men and to describe the mechanism underlying the association
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20083549
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MEN ; smoking ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; nutrition ; ESTRADIOL ; NATIONAL-HEALTH ; SERUM ; ADULT ; LEVEL ; methods ; PHASE ; USA ; ENGLAND ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE FUNCTION ; SEMEN QUALITY ; ZEEMAN BACKGROUND CORRECTION
    Abstract: Background: Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods: In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase 1 (1998-1991) of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results: After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol ( each p-trend 〈 0.05). After additionally adjusting for smoking status and serum cotinine, none of the hormones maintained an association with urinary cadmium ( each p-trend 〉 0.05). Conclusion: Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18294394
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